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Quality and Composition of Red Wine Fermented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe as Sole Fermentative Yeast, and in Mixed and Sequential Fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Santiago Benito1*, Felipe Palomero2, Laura Gálvez3, Antonio Morata2, Fernando Calderón2, Daniel Palmero3 and José Antonio Suárez-Lepe2


1
Department of Science and Technology Applied to Agricultural Engineering, University School of Agricultural Engineering, Polytechnic University of Madrid, University Campus S/N, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2Department of Food Technology, High Technical School of Agricultural Engineering, Polytechnic University of Madrid, University Campus S/N, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3Department of Plant Production: Botany and Plant Protection, University School of Agricultural Engineering, Polytechnic University of Madrid, University Campus S/N, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Article history
:

Received February 6, 2013
Accepted March 21, 2014

Key words
:

Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, malic acid, pyruvic acid, urea

Summary:

This work examines the physiology of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (represented by strain 938) in the production of red wine, as the sole fermentative yeast, and in mixed and sequential fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 796. For further comparison, fermentations in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole fermentative yeast were also performed; in these fermentations a commercial lactic acid bacterium was used to perform malolactic fermentation once alcoholic fermentation was complete (unlike S. cerevisiae, the Sc. pombe performs maloalcoholic fermentation and therefore removes malic acid without such help). Relative density, acetic, malic and pyruvic acid concentrations, primary amino nitrogen and urea concentrations, and pH of the musts were measured over the entire fermentation period. In all fermentations in which Sc. pombe 938 was involved, nearly all the malic acid was consumed from an initial concentration of 5.5 g/L, and moderate acetic acid concentrations below 0.4 g/L were formed. The urea content of these wines was notably lower, showing a tenfold reduction when compared with those that were made with S. cerevisiae 796 alone. The sensorial properties of the different final wines varied widely. The wines fermented with Sc. pombe 938 had maximum aroma intensity and quality, and they were preferred by the tasters.



*Corresponding author:         santiago.benito@upm.es
                                                    
    
+34 91 336 3710
                                            +34 91 336 5746

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Immobilization of Organic Solvent-Tolerant Lipase from Pseudomonas mendocina M-37 with Potential Synthetic Activities

Praveen Dahiya, Subhash Chand2 and Neeraj Dilbaghi1*


1
Department of Bio- and Nanotechnology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001, Haryana, India
2Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016, India
§Present address: Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Sector 125, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Noida-201303, Uttar Pradesh, India

Article history
:

Received May 27, 2013
Accepted March 17, 2014

Key words
:

acidolysis, immobilization, organic solvent-tolerant lipase, Pseudomonas mendocina, purification

Summary:

A thermostable solvent-tolerant lipase was isolated from Pseudomonas mendocina M-37. The lipase production medium was optimized for cost-effective production. Olive oil as a carbon source, and glycine as a nitrogen source were selected as the best for maximum lipase production. Medium optimization led to 3.75-fold increase in the lipase production. The extracellular lipase was purified 42.2-fold to homogeneity by precipitation using polyethyleneglycol, ultrafiltration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Its molecular mass, determined with sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was 32 kDa. The enzyme was further immobilized on microcrystalline cellulose. The lipase showed an optimal water activity of 0.53 for both, acidolysis and interesterification reactions. Six- to sevenfold increase in synthetic activity of immobilized lipase was observed when interesterification activity of 0.139 IU/mg and transesterification activity of 0.181 IU/mg, respectively, were obtained. This is the first report on Pseudomonas mendocina lipase with synthetic activity immobilized on microcrystalline cellulose.



*Corresponding author:        neeraj_dilbaghi@yahoo.co.in
                                                    
    
+91 1662 263 500
                                            +91 1662 276 240

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Validation of a Quick PCR Method Suitable for Direct Sequencing: Identification of Fusarium Fungal Species and Chemotypes for Preventive Approaches in Food Safety

Marine Pallez, Matias Pasquali*, Torsten Bohn, Lucien Hoffmann and Marco Beyer


Public Research Centre Gabriel Lippmann, Environment and Agro-Biotechnologies Department, 41, rue du Brill, LU-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg

Article history
:

Received April 26, 2013
Accepted February 19, 2014

Key words
:

Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum, microwave DNA extraction, EF1-α

Summary:

Species determination by sequencing and PCR genetic chemotyping, used to determine the toxigenic potential of Fusarium strains, is fundamental for developing preventive strategies in food safety. Here we propose and statistically validate a quick protocol for standardizing the procedure of species determination by sequencing of the elongation factor 1-α and multiplex genetic chemotyping using the Tri12 gene, based on fungal growth on Miracloth tissue coupled with microwave extraction. The test was validated on 75 Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum strains.



*Corresponding author:        pasquali@lippmann.lu
                                                    
    
+352 470 261 481
                                            +352 470 264

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Optimization, Purification and Characterization of Polygalacturonase from Mango Peel Waste Produced by Aspergillus foetidus

Sudheer Kumar Yannam1*, Prakasham Reddi Shetty2 and Vijaya Sarathi Reddy Obulum3


1
Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke West Montreal-H4B2E6, Canada
2Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad-500007, India
3Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502, India

Article history
:

Received July 18, 2013
Accepted May 15, 2014

Key words
:

mango peel, Aspergillus foetidus, submerged fermentation, polygalacturonase, response surface methodology

Summary:

Pectin-rich mango peel from industrial waste was used as a substrate for the production and characterization of novel polygalactauronase enzyme. Its production was optimized with five important factors; KH2PO4, pH, peptone, MgSO4 and urea by employing response surface methodology using submerged fermentation with Aspergillus foetidus. Total of 50 experimental runs were carried out and the predicted values for optimization were in good agreement with experimental data. The results showed that a satisfactory production of polygalacturonase from the mango peel could be achieved, reaching up to 36.5 U/mL under optimized medium conditions of pH=5.8 and (in %, by mass per volume): KH2PO4 0.22, peptone 0.5, MgSO4 0.02 and urea 0.2 %. The polygalacturonase was partially purified to 3.4-fold and the molecular mass was found to be 34 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for polygalacturonase activity were 5 and 55 °C, respectively.



*Corresponding author:        sudheerbiochem@gmail.com
                                         

                       

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Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Bova Olive Cultivar and Aroma Fingerprint of Its Oil

Karolina Brkić Bubola1*, Marin Krapac1, Igor Lukić1, Barbara Sladonja1, Antonella Autino2, Claudio Cantini3 and Danijela Poljuha1


1
Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, K. Huguesa 8, HR-52440 Pore~, Croatia
2University of Siena, Department of Environmental Science 'G. Sarfatti', Via P.A. Mattioli 4, IT-53100 Siena, Italy
3IVALSA CNR, Trees and Timber Institute, Via Aurelia 49, IT-58022 Follonica, Italy

Article history
:

Received July 5, 2013
Accepted February 10, 2014

Key words
:

Olea europaea L., morphological characteristics, DNA fingerprinting, olive oil, volatiles, sensory characteristics

Summary:

This interdisciplinary study aims to contribute to the characterization of Istrian (Croatia) olive cultivars and oil, giving for the first time the morphological and genetic profile of Bova cultivar, and chemical and sensorial characteristics of its oil. Morphological features of Bova cv. were determined according to the International Olive Council methodology, while molecular characterization was performed using eleven microsatellite markers. Bova cultivar was morphologically and genetically different from other described Istrian olive cultivars. The microsatellite profile of Bova was also unique when compared to more than 200 different Italian genotypes using the same set of markers. In order to characterize the oil from Bova cv., fruits from three trees at the same ripening stage were harvested and processed separately under the same conditions. Volatile composition of the obtained oil samples was determined using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. About 50 volatiles were detected, mostly hydrocarbons (34.69 % of total peak area), followed by aldehydes (25.80 %), alcohols (22.24 %), ketones (8.76 %), organic acids (4.08 %), terpenes (2.10 %), esters (2.18 %) and furans (0.26 %). Bova oil was rich in total C6 (39.87 %) and C5 volatiles (13.85 %), biogenerated through the lipoxygenase pathway. The most prevalent volatile compound was C6 aldehyde E-2-hexenal. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of the investigated olive oil samples was carried out by a sensory panel. The sensory profile was characterized by medium intensities of olive fruity, green leaves and grass, light tomato and aromatic herbs flavours with mild apple and other ripe fruit notes. The taste was characterized by medium to strong bitterness, followed by medium pungency and mild sweetness.



*Corresponding author:        karolina@iptpo.hr
                                                    
    
+385 52 408 300
                                            +385 52 431 659

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