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Functional Foods Enriched with Marine Microalga Nannochloropsis oculata as a Source of ω-3 Fatty Acids

Srinivasan Babuskin1, Kesavan Radha Krishnan1, Packirisamy Azhagu Saravana Babu1, Meenatchisundaram Sivarajan2 and Muthusamy Sukumar1*


1
Centre for Biotechnology, A.C. Tech., Anna University, Chennai-25, India
2Chemical Engineering Division, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai-20, India

Article history
:
Received December 3, 2013
Accepted April 14, 2014

Key words
:
lmarine microalgae, food ingredients, Nannochloropsis oculata, PUFA and fatty acid profile

Summary:

The demand for functional food incorporated with ω-3 fatty acids is increasing over the years due to their added health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, ocular diseases, arthritis, etc. This study mainly aims to develop functional cookies and pasta enriched with ω-3 fatty acids. Nannochloropsis oculata was used because of its relatively high growth rate, high lipid content, resistance to mixing and contamination together with high nutritional values. The effect of the incorporation of Nannochloropsis oculata biomass on colour, firmness, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of cookies and pasta were evaluated. The colour values were found to be stable for two months of storage and the firmness increased with the addition of microalgal biomass. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) of 98 mg per 100 g and 63 mg per 100 g were observed in cookies and pasta, respectively, enriched with 1 % of Nannochloropsis oculata biomass. Sensory evaluation showed that the addition of up to 2 and 3 % of microalgal biomass was positively evaluated and accepted for cookies and pasta, respectively. This study confirms that the cookies and pasta enriched with Nannochloropsis oculata biomass might be used as a potential source of ω-3 fatty acids.


*Corresponding author:        sukumaracbt@gmail.com
                                                    
    
+914 422 358 385
                                            +914 422 350 299

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Production of Microalgal Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstock with Fixation of CO2 by Chlorella vulgaris

Qiao Hu1, Rong Zeng2*, Sen-Xiang Zhang1, Zhong-Hua Yang1* and Hao Huang1


1
College of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, PR China
2College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, PR China

Article history
:

Received April 18, 2013
Accepted March 24, 2014

Key words
:

biodiesel, biofuels, CO2 mitigation, microalgae

Summary:
The global warming and shortage of energy are two critical problems for human social development. CO2 mitigation and replacing conventional diesel with biodiesel are effective routes to reduce these problems. Production of microalgal lipids as biodiesel feedstock by a freshwater microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, with the ability to fixate CO2 is studied in this work. The results show that nitrogen deficiency, CO2 volume fraction and photoperiod are the key factors responsible for the lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris. With 5 % CO2, 0.75 g/L of NaNO3 and 18:6 h of light/dark cycle, the lipid content and overall lipid productivity reached 14.5 % and 33.2 mg/(L·day), respectively. Furthermore, we proposed a technique to enhance the microalgal lipid productivity by activating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) with an enzyme activator. Citric acid and Mg2+ were found to be efficient enzyme activators of ACCase. With the addition of 150 mg/L of citric acid or 1.5 mmol/L of MgCl2, the lipid productivity reached 39.1 and 38.0 mg/(L·day), respectively, which was almost twofold of the control. This work shows that it is practicable to produce lipids by freshwater microalgae that can fixate CO2, and provides a potential route to solving the global warming and energy shortage problems.



*Corresponding author:        yangzh@wust.edu.cn, rongzengce@163.com
                                                    
    
+86 27 8656 3448
                             

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Surfactant Supplementation to Enhance the Production of Vitamin K2 Metabolites in Shake Flask Cultures Using Escherichia sp. Mutant FM3-1709

Yan Liu1,2, Zhi-Ming Zheng1*, Hong-Wei Qiu3, Gen-Hai Zhao1, Peng Wang1, Hui Liu1, Li Wang1 , Zhe-Min Li1, He-Fang Wu1, Hong-Xia Liu1 and Mu Tan1


1
Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui,
230031 Hefei, PR China
2College of Biochemical Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Anhui, 241000 Wuhu, PR China
3National Center for Biotechnology Development, 100036 Beijing, PR China

Article history
:
Received March 17, 2013

Accepted January 31, 2014

Key words
:
surfactant, vitamin K2, shake flask cultures

Summary:

The effects of the addition of various surfactants on the cell growth and production of
vitamin K2 metabolites, such as intracellular menaquinone-4 (MK-4), extracellular MK-4, intracellular MK-6 and extracellular MK-6, were studied in the submerged culture of Escherichia sp. All of the added surfactants caused the extension of the exponential phase. Betaine, polyoxyethylene oleyl ether and Tween-80 were favourable to the cell growth of Escherichia sp. mutant strain FM3-1709. The highest cell growth (Xmax), biomass production rate (Qx) and biomass yield (Yx/s) were (12.6±0.2) g/L, (0.21±0.01) g/(L·h) and (2.42± 0.02) g/g, respectively. The results show that the addition of all surfactants led to a lower production of intracellular MK-4, whereas the production of extracellular MK-4 increased remarkably. Among the five investigated surfactants, the addition of the nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene oleyl ether (1.0 g/L) led to the highest production of extracellular MK-4 ((33.6±0.4) mg/L), MK-6 ((2.56±0.07) mg/L) and the highest yield of total MK-4 ((47.6±0.4) mg/L) and MK-6 ((6.0±0.1) mg/L). The addition of polyoxyethylene oleyl ether proved to be more beneficial for the secretion of MK-4 than MK-6.

 


*Corresponding author:        zmzheng@ipp.ac.cn
                                                    
    
+86 551 6559 3148
                                            +86 551 6559 3148

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Identification of Lipstatin-Producing Ability in Streptomyces virginiae CBS 314.55 Using Dereplication Approach

Gordan Sladič1, Matilda Urukalo2, Matjaž Kirn1, Urška Lešnik3, Vasilka Magdevska3,
Neda Benički1, Mitja Pelko1, Aleš Gasparič1, Peter Raspor2, Tomaž Polak2, Štefan Fujs3, Paul A. Hoskisson4* and Hrvoje Petković2,3*

1
Krka d.d., Novo mesto, Šmarješka cesta 6, SI-8501 Novo Mesto, Slovenia

2University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3Acies Bio d.o.o., Tehnološki park 21, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, University of Strathclyde, Hamnett Wing,161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, G4 0RE, UK

Article history
:

Received April 5, 2013

Accepted February 25, 2014

Key words
:

lipstatin, Streptomyces virginiae, dereplication, lipase inhibitor

Summary:

Streptomyces
species are prolific producers of bioactive metabolites, such as β-lactone
-containing lipstatin produced by Streptomyces toxytricini, an intermediate used in semi-synthetic process for production of anti-obesity drug orlistat. Understanding the distribution of identical or structurally similar molecules produced by a taxonomic group is of particular importance when trying to isolate novel biologically active compounds or strains producing known metabolites of medical importance with potentially improved properties. Until now, only two independent isolates of S. toxytricini species have been known to be producers of lipstatin. According to the current taxonomic criteria, S. toxytricini belongs to Streptomyces lavendulae phenotypic cluster. Taxonomy-based dereplication approach coupled with in vitro assay was applied to screen the S. lavendulae phenotypic cluster for production of lipstatin-like lipase inhibitors using synthetic p-nitrophenol derivatives of C4 and C16 lipids. Screening the available strains from public collections belonging to S. lavendulae phenotypic cluster, high lipase inhibitory activity was identified in the Streptomyces virginiae CBS 314.55 culture supernatants. HPLC and LC-MS/MS confirmed lipstatin production by a new Streptomyces species for the first time. We have demonstrated that the new lipstatin-producing strain S. virginiae morphologically and physiologically differs from S. toxytricini substantially; however, the production capacity of the newly identified lipstatin-producing species S. virginiae is comparable to S. toxytricini. We have thus demonstrated the effectiveness of a simple and affordable dereplication approach for identification of potentially novel and useful industrial strains available in public culture collections.

 

 

*Corresponding author:        hrvoje.petkovic@aciesbio.com
                                                    
    
+386 59 075 990
                                            +386 59 075 994

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