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Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grain Texture


Mária Presinszká1*, Klára Štiasna1, Tomáš Vyhnánek1, Václav Trojan1, Eva Mrkvicová2, Luděk Hřivna3 and Ladislav Havel1

 

1Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, CZ-61300 Brno, Czech Republic
2Department of Animal Nutrition and Forage Production, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, CZ-61300 Brno, Czech Republic
3Department of Food Technology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, CZ-61300 Brno, Czech Republic



Article history:
Received  February 12, 2015
Accepted November 2, 2015


Key words:
grain hardness, mealiness, vitreousness



Summary:
Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb). A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm) was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb-D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d). The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transflectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

 




*Corresponding author:  email3  maria.presinszka@mendelu.cz
                                      tel3  +420 (0)545 133 026


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The Effect of Oat Fibre Powder Particle Size on the Physical Properties of Wheat Bread Rolls


Marcin Kurek*, Jarosław Wyrwisz, Monika Piwińska and Agnieszka Wierzbicka

 

Division of Engineering in Nutrition, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, PL-02-776 Warsaw, Poland




Article history:
Received  March 18, 2015
Accepted October 23, 2015



Key words:
dietary fibre, oat fibre, bread, particle size



Summary:
In response to the growing interest of modern society in functional food products, this study attempts to develop a bakery product with high dietary fibre content added in the form of an oat fibre powder. Oat fibre powder with particle sizes of 75 μm (OFP1) and 150 μm (OFP2) was used, substituting 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 % of the flour. The physical properties of the dough and the final bakery products were then measured. Results indicated that dough with added fibre had higher elasticity than the control group. The storage modulus values of dough with OFP1 most closely approximated those of the control group. The addition of OFP1 did not affect significantly the colour compared to the other samples. Increasing the proportion of oat fibre powder resulted in increased firmness, which was most prominent in wheat bread rolls with oat fibre powder of smaller particle sizes. The addition of oat fibre powder with smaller particles resulted in a product with the rheological and colour parameters that more closely resembled control sample.

 






*Corresponding author:  email3  marcin_kurek@sggw.pl
                                      tel3  +48 (0)22 590 37 014
                                     
                                         


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16S rRNA in situ Hybridization Followed by Flow Cytometry for Rapid Identification of Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Submerged Industrial Vinegar Production


Janja Trček1,2*, Luka Lipoglavšek3 and Gorazd Avguštin3

 

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Koroška cesta 160, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia
2Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova ulica 17, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia
3Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Groblje 3, SI-1230 Domžale, Slovenia




Article history:
Received  December 20, 2014
Accepted October 13, 2015
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Key words:
microbiota, vinegar, acetic acid bacteria, Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Komagataeibacter, 16S rRNA probe, in situ hybridization, flow cytometry

 


Summary:
Acetic acid bacteria are involved in many biotechnological processes such as vitamin C, gluconic acid, miglitol or acetic acid production, and others. For a technologist trying to control the industrial process, the ability to follow the microbiological development of the process is thus of importance. During the past few years hybridization in a combination with flow cytometry has oft en been used for this purpose. Since vinegar is a liquid, it is an ideal matrix for flow cytometry analysis. In this work we have constructed a specific probe for highly acetic acid-resistant species of the acetic acid bacteria and a protocol for in situ hybridization, which in combination with flow cytometry enables direct monitoring of bacteria producing vinegar with >10 % of acetic acid. The approach was successfully applied for monitoring microbiota during industrial vinegar production.

 

 

 


*Corresponding author:  email3  janja.trcek@um.si
                                      tel3  +386 (0)2 229 3707
                                      fax2  +386 (0)2 251 8180


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Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

 

Aleksandra Štornik1, Barbara Skok1 and Janja Trček1,2*


1Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Koroška cesta 160, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia
2Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova ulica 17, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia



Article history:
Received  January 23, 2015
Accepted July 17, 2015


Key words:
microbiota, organic and conventional apple cider vinegar, Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter,
Komagataeibacter

 


Summary:
Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90 %), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50 %), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35 %) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25 %). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70 %) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30 %). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial production of organic apple cider vinegar is clearly more heterogeneous than the bacterial microbiota for the industrial production of conventional apple cider vinegar. Further chemical analysis should reveal if a difference in microbiota composition influences the quality of different types of apple cider vinegar.

 

 

 


*Corresponding author:  email3  janja.trcek@um.si
                                      tel3  +386 (0)2 229 3707
                                      fax2  +386 (0)2 251 8180


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Stability of Rosmarinic Acid in Aqueous Extracts from Different Lamiaceae Species after in vitro Digestion with Human Gastrointestinal Enzymes


Zoran Zorić1, Joško Markić2, Sandra Pedisić1, Viljemka Bučević-Popović3, Ivana Generalić-Mekinić4, Katarina Grebenar4 and Tea Kulišić-Bilušić4*

 

1Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Centre in Zadar, P. Kasandrića 6, HR-23000 Zadar, Croatia
2University Hospital of Split, Spinčićeva 1, HR-21000 Split, Croatia
3Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Split, Teslina 12, HR-21000 Split, Croatia
4Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Teslina 10, HR-21000 Split, Croatia




Article history:
Received  December 16, 2014
Accepted October 22, 2015



Key words:
rosmarinic acid, in vitro digestion, stability, human gastrointestinal enzymes, Lamiaceae species



Summary:
The present study compares the gastrointestinal stability of rosmarinic acid in aqueous extracts of thyme, winter savory and lemon balm with the stability of pure rosmarinic acid. The stability of rosmarinic acid was detected after two-phase in vitro digestion process (gastric and duodenal) with human gastrointestinal enzymes. The concentration of rosmarinic acid in undigested and digested samples was detected using HPLC-DAD. Results showed that gastrointestinal stability of pure rosmarinic acid was significantly higher than that of rosmarinic acid from plant extracts after both gastric and intestinal phases of digestion. Among plant extracts, rosmarinic acid was the most stable in lemon balm after gastric (14.10 %) and intestinal digestion phases (6.5 %). The temperature (37 °C) and slightly alkaline medium (pH=7.5) did not affect the stability of rosmarinic acid, while acid medium (pH=2.5) significantly decreased its stability (≥50 %). In addition, the stability rate of rosmarinic acid is infl uenced by the concentration of human gastrointestinal juices.

 






*Corresponding author:  email3  tea@ktf-split.hr
                                      tel3  +385 (0)21 329 465
                                      fax2  +385 (0)21 329 461
                                         
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