getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.54.02.16.4064

Adsorption Characteristics of Different Adsorbents and Iron(III) Salt for Removing As(V) from Water


Josip Ćurko, Marin Matošić, Vlado Crnek, Višnja Stulić and Ivan Mijatović*

Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia


Article history:
Received  January 13, 2015
Accepted December 9, 2015
cc

Key words:
arsenic removal, drinking water, adsorption


Summary:
The aim of this study is to determine the adsorption performance of three types of adsorbents for removal of As(V) from water: Bayoxide® E33 (granular iron(III) oxide), Titansorb® (granular titanium oxide) and a suspension of precipitated iron(III) hydroxide. Results of As(V) adsorption stoichiometry of two commercial adsorbents and precipitated iron(III) hydroxide in tap and demineralized water were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations, from which adsorption constants and adsorption capacity were calculated. The separation factor RL for the three adsorbents ranged from 0.04 to 0.61, indicating effective adsorption. Precipitated iron(III) hydroxide had the greatest, while Titansorb had the lowest capacity to adsorb As(V). Comparison of adsorption from tap or demineralized water showed that Bayoxide and precipitated iron(III) hydroxide had higher adsorption capacity in demineralized water, whereas Titansorb showed a slightly higher capacity in tap water. These results provide mechanistic insights into how commonly used adsorbents remove As(V) from water.




*Corresponding author:  email3 imijat@pbf.hr
                                      tel3 +385 1 4605 131

                                      fax2 +385 1 4605 072
                      
                     

getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.54.02.16.4582

Investigating the Variation of Volatile Compound Composition in Maotai-Flavoured Liquor During Its Multiple Fermentation Steps Using Statistical Methods


Zheng-Yun Wu, Xue-Jun Lei, De-Wen Zhu and Ai-Min Luo*

Department of Food Engineering, College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, 610065 Chengdu, PR China




Article history:
Received  December 29, 2015
Accepted January 28, 2016
cc

Key words:
Maotai-flavoured liquor, multiple fermentations, volatile compounds, statistical analysis, back-propagation neural network


Summary:
The use of multiple fermentations is one of the most specifi c characteristics of Maotai-flavoured liquor production. In this research, the variation of volatile composition of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its multiple fermentations is investigated using statistical approaches. Cluster analysis shows that the obtained samples are grouped mainly according to the fermentation steps rather than the distillery they originate from, and the samples from the first two fermentation steps show the greatest difference, suggesting that multiple fermentation and distillation steps result in the end in similar volatile composition of the liquor. Back-propagation neural network (BNN) models were developed that satisfactorily predict the number of fermentation steps and the organoleptic evaluation scores of liquor samples from their volatile compositions. Mean impact value (MIV) analysis shows that ethyl lactate, furfural and some high-boiling-point acids play important roles, while pyrazine contributes much less to the improvement of the flavour and taste of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its production. This study contributes to further understanding of the mechanisms of Maotai-flavoured liquor production.




*Corresponding author:  email3 luoam@scu.edu.cn
                                      tel3 +86 28 8540 5236
                                      fax2 +86 28 8540 5137
                      
                     

getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.54.02.16.4096

Influence of Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes at 590 nm on Storage of Apple, Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruit


Doris Kokalj1*, Janez Hribar1, Blaž Cigić1, Emil Zlatić1, Lea Demšar1, Lovro Sinkovič2, Helena Šircelj3, Grega Bizjak4 and Rajko Vidrih1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2Crop Science Department, Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hacquetova 17, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4Department of Power Systems and Devices, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška cesta 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia



Article history:

Received  January 30, 2015
Accepted November 30, 2015
cc


Key words:

LED light, antioxidant potential, phenolics, flavonoids, pigments, ascorbic acid, tocopherols


Summary:
The objective of this study is to investigate the eff ects of irradiation from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on several fruits during storage. To improve storage and increase the contents of some bioactive compounds, apple, tomato and red bell pepper fruits were exposed to yellow light emitt ed from the diodes at 590 nm. The contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids and several pigments were investigated, along with the antioxidant potential. The colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) and firmness of the fruit were also determined. After 7 days of LED light irradiation, there was significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant potential in apple peel extracts. The irradiated fruit of tomato had significantly higher levels of total phenolic compounds, and the fruit of red bell pepper had significantly higher antioxidant potential. LED light had no effects on the colour parameters, although there was a tendency to accelerate colour development. Apple fruit irradiated with LED light was significantly less firm. Among twelve analysed pigments, significantly more β-carotene was detected in LED light-irradiated apple and bell pepper fruit, more α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol in bell pepper fruit, and more lutein in apple peel and bell pepper fruit. The applied LED light slightly accelerated the ripening of the studied fruit, and affected the synthesis of some of the secondary metabolites.




*Corresponding author:  email3 doriskokalj@gmail.com
                                      tel3 +386 41 715 153
                                      fax2 +386 1 256 6296
                      
                     

getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.54.02.16.4095

Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Berry Fruits


Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić1*, Kiril Mihalev2, Ivana Bečić1, Ivana Polović1, Mariya Georgieva2, Senka Djaković1 and Želimir Kurtanjek1

1University of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2University of Food Technologies, Department of Food Preservation and Refrigeration Technology, 26 Maritza Boulevard, BG-4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria




Article history:

Received  January 30, 2015
Accepted December 23, 2015
cc



Key words:

berry fruits, antioxidant activity, NIR spectroscopy, PLS models, total phenolic content


Summary:
This study evaluates the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and environmentally friendly technique for validation and prediction of the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) indices (as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, inhibition time (IT) of the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC)) of berry fruit extracts. The analysed berry samples originated from Croatia (blackberries, wild blueberries, raspberries, red currants and strawberries) and Bulgaria (wild blueberries, raspberries and strawberries). Principal component analysis and partial least squares (PLS) regression were used from the set of chemometric tools in distinguishing and validating the measured berry fruit extract. ANOVA and PCA showed no significant impact of the origin and freshness of the samples. PLS models were developed to validate the relationship of NIR spectra with TPC and AOA of berry fruits. Representativeness of the models was expressed with the R2 and the ratio of performance to deviation. Calculated R2 values were above 0.84 and the ratio of performance to deviation was between 1.8 and 3.1, indicating adequacy of the PLS models.





*Corresponding author:  email3 jasenka.gajdos@pbf.hr
                                      tel3 +385 1 4605 025
                                      fax2 +385 1 4836 083
                      
                     

getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.54.02.16.4304

Development of a New Model for Mass Transfer Kinetics of Petals of Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. under Fluidized Bed Conditions


Fatemeh Nadi*

Department of Agricultural Machinery Mechanics, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahid Rajaee St., 49617-89985 Azadshar, Iran



Article history:
Received  June 19, 2015
Accepted December 4, 2015
cc

Key words:
new thin-layer drying model, fluidized bed dryer, Echium amoenum petals, mass transfer kinetics, total phenolic content, optimum drying conditions



Summary:

A new semi-theoretical thin-layer model of the fluidized bed drying of Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. petals has been developed. Experiments were conducted under different conditions: temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C, and air velocities of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 m/s, until the moisture content decreased to 0.04–0.06 kg of water per kg of dry matter. Drying processes in the fluidized bed were completed in between 55 and 465 min, with minimum drying time required at the maximum temperature of 60 °C and air velocity of 1 m/s. The comparison of the new model developed here with sixteen previously published theoretical, semi-empirical or empirical thin-layer drying equations shows that using the new model the highest coefficient of correlation, the lowest reduced chi-square and root mean square error were obtained. The highest retention of total phenolic compounds in E. amoenum petals was achieved when drying at 60 °C and 1.0 m/s.





*Corresponding author:  email3 F.nadi@iauaz.ac.ir
                                      tel3 +98 173 5722 223
                                      fax2 +98 173 5724 003
                      
                     

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