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doi: 10.17113/ftb.54.04.16.4497 

Evaluation of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits and Vegetables Using a Modified Enzymatic Extraction

 

Rudy Álvarez1, Héctor Araya1, Rosa Navarro-Lisboa2* and Carol Lopez de Dicastillo3
 

1University of Chile and the School of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nutrition, El Líbano 5524 Macul, 7830490 Santiago, Chile
2University of Santiago of Chile, Faculty of Technology, Department of Science and Food Technology, Obispo Umaña 050, Estación Central, 9170200 Santiago, Chile
3University of Santiago of Chile, Faculty of Technology, Department of Science and Food Technology, Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Food Packaging Laboratory (LABEN-CHILE), Estación Central, 9170200 Santiago, Chile





Article history:
Received    October 27, 2015
Accepted   May 12, 2016
cc


Key words:
antioxidant capacity, enzymatic extraction, fruits and vegetables, methanolic extraction, polyphenols


Summary:
Fruits and vegetables are considered a good source of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities which are beneficial in protecting the human body against damage induced by reactive species. The objective of this work is to conduct an assessment of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of different fruit (kiwi, pear, green apple, raspberry, blackberry, strawberry and blueberry) and vegetable (pumpkin, green and red pepper) extracts using both chemical extraction and a modified in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction in order to compare results. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of different fruits, vegetables and fruit juices were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP methods, respectively. It was observed that polyphenol content expressed as gallic acid equivalents of extracts obtained with the two extraction methods was significantly (p<0.05) different (on average 310.3 and 231.8 mg per 100 g of fresh sample in enzymatic and methanolic extracts, respectively). Antioxidant capacity was also significantly (p<0.05) different in the extracts obtained by the two methods, with higher values in enzymatic extracts (1.91 mmol of Fe2+ per 100 g of fresh sample). Analyses of apple samples with and without skin also revealed important differences related to methodology and composition. Additionally, the original enzymatic extraction method was improved to avoid interferences caused by the presence of protein residues in the extract.


 


*Corresponding author:  email3  rosa.navarro@usach.cl



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doi: 10.17113/ftb.54.04.16.4323 

Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation

 

Aynur Serçe1, Bircan Çeken Toptancı1, Sevil Emen Tanrıkut1, Sevcan Altaş1, Göksel Kızıl1, Süleyman Kızıl2 and Murat Kızıl1*
 

1Chemistry Department, Science Faculty, Dicle University, TR–21280 Diyarbakır, Turkey
2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Dicle University, TR–21280 Diyarbakır, Turkey




Article history:
Received    June 20, 2015
Accepted   June 16, 2016
cc


Key words:
Silybum marianum (milk thistle) seeds, antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity, oxidative DNA damage, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, carbonyl formation, SDS–PAGE


Summary:
Antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) seeds was investigated. We have also investigated the protein damage activated by oxidative Fenton reaction and its prevention by Silybum marianum seed extract. Antioxidant potential of Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract was measured using different in vitro methods, such as lipid peroxidation, 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power assays. The extract significantly decreased DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals was also efficiently inhibited, which was confirmed by the presence of protein damage markers, such as protein carbonyl formation and by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE). The present study shows that milk thistle seeds have good DPPH free radical scavenging activity and can prevent lipid peroxidation. Therefore, Silybum marianum can be used as potentially rich source of antioxidants and food preservatives. The results suggest that the seeds may have potential beneficial health effects providing opportunities to develop value-added products.


 




*Corresponding author:  email3  muratk@dicle.edu.tr
                                      tel3  +90 412 2488 406
                                      fax2  +90 412 2488 406



getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi10.17113/ftb.54.04.16.4601 

Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

 

Ivona Elez Garofulić1*, Zoran Zorić2, Sandra Pedisić2 and Verica Dragović-Uzelac1
 

1Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR- 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Centre Zadar, Petra Kasandrića 6, HR- 23000 Zadar, Croatia





Article history:
Received    January 8, 2016
Accepted   June 10, 2016
cc


Key words:
sour cherry juice, spray drying, optimization, physicochemical properties


Summary:
Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40 % of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27 % of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder.


 


*Corresponding author:  email3  ielez@pbf.hr
                                      tel3  +385 1 460 5036
                                      fax2  +385 1 460 5072



getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.54.04.16.4518 

Biological Treatment of Cyanide by Using Klebsiella pneumoniae Species

 

Nermin Hande Avcioglu* and Isil Seyis Bilkay
 

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology (Biotechnology), Beytepe, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey





Article history:
Received    November 8, 2015
Accepted   May 13, 2016
cc


Key words:
Klebsiella pneumoniae, cyanide, biodegradation


Summary:
In this study, optimization conditions for cyanide biodegradation by Klebsiella pneumoniae strain were determined to be 25 °C, pH=7 and 150 rpm at the concentration of 0.5 mM potassium cyanide in the medium. Additionally, it was found that K. pneumoniae strain is not only able to degrade potassium cyanide, but also to degrade potassium hexa cyanoferrate(II) trihydrate and sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate with the efficiencies of 85 and 87.5 %, respectively. Furthermore, this strain degraded potassium cyanide in the presence of different ions such as magnesium, nickel, cobalt, iron, chromium, arsenic and zinc, in variable concentrations (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mM) and as a result the amount of the bacteria in the biodegradation media decreased with the increase of ion concentration. Lastly, it was also observed that sterile crude extract of K. pneumoniae strain degraded potassium cyanide on the fifth day of incubation. Based on these results, it is concluded that both culture and sterile crude extract of K. pnemoniae will be used in cyanide removal from different wastes.


 


*Corresponding author:  email3  handeurkmez@gmail.com



getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  
doi: 10.17113/ftb.54.04.16.4475 

Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob (Ceratonia silliqua L.) Pods and Seeds

 

Maja Benković1, Siniša Srečec2, Ingrid Bauman1*, Damir Ježek1, Sven Karlović1, Dario Kremer3, Ksenija Karlović4 and Renata Erhatić2
 

1University of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2Križevci College of Agriculture, M. Demerca 1, HR-48260 Križevci, Croatia
3University of Zagreb, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Schrottova 39, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetošimunska 25, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia




Article history:
Received    October 14, 2015
Accepted   May 13, 2016
cc


Key words:
carob, drying, texture, micromorphology


Summary:
Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and carob seed. The drying experiments and the modelling showed that carob seeds had the highest drying rate, followed by pod parts and the whole, intact carob fruit. Texture studies showed that the maximum compression force depended on the area of the carob fruit on which compression tests were performed. The seeds showed the highest compression force, followed by the stem zone, the tip and the centre of the fruit. Differences in drying behaviour and texture of carob pods can successfully be interpreted by the micromorphology of the carob pods and seeds. Determining the drying rate, maximum compressive force and micromorphological traits is of great importance for further carob processing (e.g. milling, sieving, carob bean gum production or usage in food or feed products).


 


*Corresponding author:  email3  ibauman@pbf.hr
                                      tel3  +385 1 4605 019



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