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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.01.17.4514 

Adhesion of Candida spp. and Pichia spp. to Wooden Surfaces

 

Ružica Tomičić1, Zorica Tomičić2 and Peter Raspor3*


1Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, RS-21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
2Institute of Food Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, RS-21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
3Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

 

Article history:
Received  November 5, 2015
Accepted  November 23, 2016
cc



Key words:
adhesion, yeast, Candida spp., Pichia spp., wood surfaces


 


Summary:
Yeast adhesion to and biofilm formation on surfaces is present in many different environments. In food industry, biofilms may be a source of contaminations, causing food spoilage and reducing quality of products. Candida and Pichia are two common yeast genera involved in the spoilage of some food products. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of Candida and Pichia species to adhere to two types of wooden surfaces (smooth and rough), one of the materials typical for the food processing industry, and investigate the influence of surface roughness of wood on the degree of yeast adhesion. The adhesion of the cells to the wooden surfaces was determined by rinsing them from the surface, followed by methylene blue staining, and quantification after imaging under microscope by automatic counting of viable cells. The results showed that all Candida and Pichia strains were able to adhere to the wooden surfaces in a species- and strain-dependent manner. On the other hand, our data indicated that adhesion by these yeasts was not significantly affected by the roughness of the wood surfaces.






*Corresponding author:  email3  peter.raspor@guest.arnes.si


 


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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.01.17.4770 

Assessment of Grape, Plum and Orange Synthetic Food Flavourings Using in vivo Acute Toxicity Tests

 

Ila Monize Sousa Sales1, Janaína Sousa Barbosa1, Fabelina Karollyne Silva dos Santos1Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva1,2, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira2João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa1,2 and Ana Paula Peron1,3*
 

1Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Mutagenesis (LaCM), Biological Sciences Academic Course, Campus Senador Helvídio Nunes de Barros (CSHNB), Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Picos, 64049-550 Piauí, Brazil
2Department of Biophysics and Physiology, Postgraduate Programs in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, 64049-550 Piauí, Brazil
3Postgraduate Program in Genetics and Improvement, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, 64049-550 Piauí, Brazil




Article history:
Received  May 2, 2016
Accepted  October 5, 2016
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Key words:
aroma and flavour additives, toxicity, cell division, mitotic spindle changes, micronucleus


 

Summary:
The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of synthetic grape, plum and orange flavourings in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the doses of 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mL/kg and exposure times of 24 and 48 h, and in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated orally for seven days with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring. The results of the plant test showed that grape, plum and orange flavourings, at both exposure times, inhibited cell division and promoted the formation of a significant number of micronuclei and mitotic spindle changes. These alterations were observed in at least one exposure time analysed, demonstrating a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In mouse bioassay, animals treated with 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring died before the seventh day of treatment. The amounts of 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg of the three additives were cytotoxic to erythrocytes, and treatment with the grape fl avouring significantly induced the formation of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow of animals. Therefore, under the study conditions, the grape, plum and orange flavouring additives promoted significant toxicity to cells of the test systems used.







*Corresponding author:  email3  anapaulaperon@ufpi.edu.br
                                      tel3  +55 89 3422 4200

 


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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.01.17.4633 

The Anti-Staphylococcus aureus Effect of Combined Echinophora platyloba Essential Oil and Liquid Smoke in Beef

 

Zahra Pilevar1, Hedayat Hosseini1*, Homa Hajimehdipoor2, Farzaneh Shahraz1Leyla Alizadeh1, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah3* and Maryam Mahmoudzadeh1

 

1Food Sciences and Technology Department, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and  Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 1981619573 Tehran, Iran
2Traditional Medicine and Material Medical Research Center and Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti  University of Medical Sciences, 1981619573 Tehran, Iran
3Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Monteiro Lobato 80, 13083-862 Campinas, SP, Brazil




Article history:
Received  February 5, 2016
Accepted  September 16, 2016
cc



Key words:
antibacterial activity, Echinophora platyloba, liquid smoke, Staphylococcus aureusbeef


 

Summary:
In the current study, the antibacterial effect of Echinophora platyloba essential oil and common liquid smoke (individually and in combination) against Staphylococcus aureus in beef meat samples is investigated. Using an automated microbiological growth analyser and the turbidimetric technique, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the essential oil and liquid smoke were determined. Anti-S. aureus activity of essential oil and liquid smoke (individually and in combination) was defined by disk diffusion assay, generation time and cell constituent release. Apart from that, the interactions between these two compounds were measured by the checkerboard assay and by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices. Related MIC values of essential oil and smoke were found to be 7200 and 5500 mg/L, and MBC values were 8500 and 8000 mg/L, respectively. The conducted organoleptic assay showed that the addition of 0.05 g of essential oil and 0.6 g of liquid smoke to 100 g of meat samples did not have adverse effect on the overall acceptance. Weaker antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus was observed when only Echinophora platyloba essential oil was used than when it was used in combination with liquid smoke.






*Corresponding author:  email3  hedayat@sbmu.ac.ir (H. Hosseini)
                                      tel3  +98 21 2237 6426
                                      fax2  +98 21 2236 0660
                                       email3  mousavi@fea.unicamp.br (A. Mousavi Khaneghah)         
                                      tel3  +55 19 3521 0091
                                      fax2  +55 19 3521 2153

 


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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.01.17.4812 

An Effective Method of Continuous Production of Erythritol from Glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica MK1

 

Magdalena Rakicka*, Aleksandra M. Mirończuk, Ludwika Tomaszewska-Hetman, Anita Rywińska and Waldemar Rymowicz
 
 

Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego St. 37, PL-51-630 Wroclaw, Poland




Article history:
Received  June 3, 2016
Accepted  November 7, 2016
cc


Key words:
erythritol, glycerol, chemostat, Yarrowia lipolytica


 

Summary:
This study demonstrates the potential applicability of the UV mutant Yarrowia lipolytica MK1 for the valorisation of glycerol and erythritol production in a chemostat culture. The aim of this research is to investigate the optimal C:N ratio in the feeding medium in order to enhance erythritol production. The highest erythritol concentration, at 113.1 g/L with a volumetric erythritol production rate of 1.1 g/(L·h) and a yield of 0.57 g/g, was obtained in the feeding medium with a C:N ratio of 80:1. Moreover, no residual glycerol was observed in the culture broth during cultivation. The chemical composition of the biomass was analysed. The contents of lysine and threonine in the biomass protein amino acid profile were higher than those required by the FAO/WHO for fodder yeast.



 


*Corresponding author:  email3  magdalena.rakicka@upwr.edu.pl
                                      tel3  +48 71 320 7793
                                      fax2  +48 71 320 7794

 


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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.01.17.4894

Polyphenols from Wine Lees as a Novel Functional Bioactive Compound in the Protection Against Oxidative Stress and

Hyperlipidaemia
 

Irena Landeka Jurčević1, Mirna Dora1, Iva Guberović1, Marija Petras1Suzana Rimac Brnčić1 and Domagoj Đikić2*
 

1University of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia




Article history:
Received  July 14, 2016
Accepted  October 13, 2016
cc



Key words:
wine lees, lipoproteins, hyperlipidaemia, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants


 

Summary:
The study examines the potential of wine industry by-product, the lees, as a rich mixture of natural polyphenols, and its physiological potential to reduce postprandial metabolic and oxidative stress caused by a cholesterol-rich diet in in vivo model. Chemical analysis of wine lees showed that their total solid content was 94.2 %. Wine lees contained total phenols, total nonflavonoids and total flavonoids expressed in mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry mass: 2316.6±37.9, 1332.5±51.1 and 984.1±28.2, respectively. The content of total anthocyanins expressed in mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g of dry mass was 383.1±21.6. Antioxidant capacity of wine lees determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods and expressed in mM of Trolox equivalents per 100 g was 259.8±1.8 and 45.7±1.05, respectively. The experiment lasted 60 days using C57BL/6 mice divided in four groups: group 1 was fed normal diet and used as control, group 2 was fed normal diet with added wine lees, group 3 was fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD), i.e. normal diet with the addition of sunflower oil, and group 4 was fed HCD with wine lees. HCD increased serum total cholesterol (TC) by 2.3-fold, triacylglycerol (TAG) by 1.5-fold, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by 3.5-fold and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) by 50 %, and reduced liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 50 %, catalase (CAT) by 30 % and glutathione (GSH) by 17.5 % compared to control. Conversely, treatment with HCD and wine lees reduced TC and LDL up to 1.4 times more than with HCD only, with depletion of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and restoration of SOD and CAT activities in liver, approximating values of the control. HDL levels were unaffected in any group. Serum transaminase activity showed no hepatotoxic properties in the treatment with lees alone. In the proposed model, wine lees as a rich polyphenol source could be a basis for functional food products without alcohol.



 


*Corresponding author:  email3  magistar_djikic1@yahoo.com, domagoj.djikic@pmf.hr
                                      tel3  +385 91 5898 159
                                      fax2  +385 1 4826 260

 

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