getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.02.17.4722 

Relationships Between Bioactive Compound Content and the Antiplatelet and Antioxidant Activities of Six Allium Vegetable Species



Hebe Vanesa Beretta1small orcid_display_4pp, Florencia Bannoud1small orcid_display_4pp, Marina Insani2small orcid_display_4pp, Federico Berli1,3small orcid_display_4ppPablo Hirschegger3small orcid_display_4pp, Claudio Rómulo Galmarini1,3,4 small orcid_display_4ppand Pablo Federico Cavagnaro1,3,4*small orcid_display_4pp


1National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires, Argentina
2National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), Nicolas Repetto y de los Reseros s/n, Hurlingham, 1686 Buenos Aires, Argentina
3National University of Cuyo, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Almirante Brown 500, Luján de Cuyo, 5505 Mendoza, Argentina
4National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) – E.E.A. La Consulta, La Consulta CC8, San Carlos, 5567 Mendoza, Argentina





Article history:
Received March 30, 2016
Accepted January 17, 2017
cc



Key words:
Allium sp., garlic, onion, antiplatelet activity, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds


Summary:
Allium sp. vegetables are widely consumed for their characteristic flavour. Additionally, their consumption may provide protection against cardiovascular disease due to their antiplatelet and antioxidant activities. Although antiplatelet and antioxidant activities in Allium sp. are generally recognised, comparative studies of antiplatelet and antioxidant potency among the main Allium vegetable species are lacking. Also, the relationship between organosulfur and phenolic compounds and these biological activities has not been well established. In this study, the in vitro antiplatelet and antioxidant activities of the most widely consumed Allium species are characterised and compared. The species total organosulfur and phenolic content, and the HPLC profiles of 11 phenolic compounds were characterised and used to investigate the relationship between these compounds and antiplatelet and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, antiplatelet activities in chives and shallot have been characterised for the first time. Our results revealed that the strongest antiplatelet agents were garlic and shallot, whereas chives had the highest antioxidant activity. Leek and bunching onion had the weakest both biological activities. Significantly positive correlations were found between the in vitro antiplatelet activity and total organosulfur (R=0.74) and phenolic (TP) content (R=0.73), as well as between the antioxidant activity and TP (R=0.91) and total organosulfur content (R=0.67). Six individual phenolic compounds were associated with the antioxidant activity, with catechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechin gallate having the strongest correlation values (R>0.80). Overall, our results suggest that both organosulfur and phenolic compounds contribute similarly to Allium antiplatelet activity, whereas phenolics, as a whole, are largely responsible for antioxidant activity, with broad variation observed among the contributions of individual phenolic compounds.




*Corresponding author:  email3  pablocavagnaro@hotmail.com
                                          tel3  +54 261 4605 737




getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.02.17.4732 

Synthesis of the Galactosyl Derivative of Gluconic Acid With the Transglycosylation Activity of ß-Galactosidase



Aleksandra Wojciechowska1*small orcid_display_4pp, Robert Klewicki1small orcid_display_4pp, Michał Sójka1small orcid_display_4pp and Elżbieta Klewicka2small orcid_display_4pp


1Institute of Food Technology and Analysis, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 4/10, PL-90-924 Łódź, Poland
2Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Wólczańska 171/173, PL-90-924 Łódź, Poland




Article history:
Received April 7, 2016
Accepted November 29, 2016
cc


Key words:
gluconic acid, ß-galactosidase, transglycosylation, lactose


Summary:
Bionic acids are bioactive compounds demonstrating numerous interesting properties. They are widely produced by chemical or enzymatic oxidation of disaccharides. This paper focuses on the galactosyl derivative of gluconic acid as a result of a new method of bionic acid synthesis which utilises the transglycosylation properties of ß-galactosidase and introduces lactose as a substrate. Products obtained in such a process are characterised by different structures (and, potentially, properties) than those resulting from traditional oxidation of disaccharides. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of selected parameters (concentration and ratio of substrates, dose of the enzyme, time, pH, presence of salts) on the course of the reaction carried out with the enzymatic preparation Lactozym, containing ß-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis. Research has shown that increased dry matter content in the baseline solution (up to 50 %, by mass per volume) and an addition of NaCl contribute to higher yield. On the other hand, reduced content of the derivative is a result of increased pH from 7.0 to 9.0 and an addition of magnesium and manganese salts. Moreover, exceeding the ß-galactosidase dose over approx. 35 000 U per 100 g of lactose also leads to reduced yield of the process. The most favourable molar ratio of sodium gluconate to lactose is 2.225:0.675. Depending on the conditions of the synthesis, the product concentration ranged between 17.3 and 118.3 g/L of the reaction mixture, which corresponded to the mass fraction of 6.64–23.7 % of dry matter. The data obtained as a result of the present study may be useful for designing an industrial process.




*Corresponding author:  email3  aleksandra.wojciechowska@dokt.p.lodz.pl
                                          tel3  +48 42 631 3465




getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.02.17.4687

Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers



Vanja Lovrićsmall orcid_display_4pp, Predrag Putnik*small orcid_display_4pp, Danijela Bursać Kovačevićsmall orcid_display_4pp, Marijana Jukićsmall orcid_display_4pp and Verica Dragović-Uzelacsmall orcid_display_4pp


Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10 000 Zagreb, Croatia




Article history:
Received March 7, 2016
Accepted April 24, 2017
cc


Key words:
microwave-assisted extraction, blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) flowers, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity



Summary:
This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays). The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70 % aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol), extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min) and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences at a 95 % confidence level (p≤0.05). The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols) than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70 % aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50 % aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval) has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.




*Corresponding author:  email3  pputnik@alumni.uconn.edu
                                          tel3  +385 1 460 5036
                                          fax2  +385 1 460 5072




getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.02.17.4749 

MEGGASENSE – The Metagenome/Genome Annotated Sequence Natural Language Search Engine: A Platform for the Construction of Sequence Data Warehouses



Ranko Gacesa1,2small orcid_display_4pp, Jurica Zucko1,3small orcid_display_4pp, Solveig K. Petursdottir4small orcid_display_4pp, Elisabet Eik Gudmundsdottir4small orcid_display_4ppOlafur H. Fridjonsson4small orcid_display_4pp, Janko Diminic1,3small orcid_display_4pp, Paul F. Long2,5small orcid_display_4pp, John Cullum6small orcid_display_4ppDaslav Hranueli1,3small orcid_display_4pp, Gudmundur O. Hreggvidsson4,7small orcid_display_4pp and Antonio Starcevic1,3*small orcid_display_4pp


1SemGen Ltd., Lanište 5/D, HR-10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
2Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK
3Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
4Matis Ltd., Vínlandslei? 12, IS-113 Reykjavík, Iceland
5Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK
6Department of Genetics, University of Kaiserslautern, Postfach 3049, DE-67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany
7Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Sturlugötu 7, IS-101 Reykjavík, Iceland




Article history:
Received April 22, 2016
Accepted January 17, 2017
cc



Key words:
bioprospecting, carbohydrate-modifying enzymes, DNA assembly


Summary:
The MEGGASENSE platform constructs relational databases of DNA or protein sequences. The default functional analysis uses 14 106 hidden Markov model (HMM) profiles based on sequences in the KEGG database. The Solr search engine allows sophisticated queries and a BLAST search function is also incorporated. These standard capabilities were used to generate the SCATT database from the predicted proteome of Streptomyces cattleya. The implementation of a specialised metagenome database (AMYLOMICS) for bioprospecting of carbohydrate-modifying enzymes is described. In addition to standard assembly of reads, a novel ‘functional’ assembly was developed, in which screening of reads with the HMM profiles occurs before the assembly. The AMYLOMICS database incorporates additional HMM profiles for carbohydrate-modifying enzymes and it is illustrated how the combination of HMM and BLAST analyses helps identify interesting genes. A variety of different proteome and metagenome databases have been generated by MEGGASENSE.




*Corresponding author:  email3  astar@pbf.hr
                                          tel3  +385 1 4605 147
                                          fax2  +385 1 4836 083




getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.02.17.4883

Evaluation of Solasonine Content and Expression Patterns of SGT1 Gene in Different Tissues of Two Iranian Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Genotypes



Mahmoud Bagheri1,2*small orcid_display_4pp, Ali Akbar Shahnejat Bushehri1*small orcid_display_4ppMohammad Reza Hassandokht3small orcid_display_4pp and Mohammad Reza Naghavi1small orcid_display_4pp


1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Chamran Blvd., IR-31587- 77871 Karaj, Iran
2Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Fahmideh Blvd., IR-31585-4119 Karaj, Iran
3Department of Horticultural Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Chamran Blvd., IR-31587-77871 Karaj, Iran



Article history:
Received July 10, 2016
Accepted February 15, 2017
cc



Key words:
eggplant, gene expression, glycoalkaloids, SGT1 gene



Summary:
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world. The eggplant glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that may have detrimental effects on human health, particularly if the magnitudes of GAs are higher than the recommended food safety level (200 mg per kg of fresh mass). In this study, the content of solasonine compound and the expression patterns of solasodine galactosyltransferase (SGT1) gene were assessed in different tissues (mature leaves, flower buds, young, mature, and physiologically ripe fruits) of two Iranian eggplant genotypes (D1 and J10) under field conditions. The maximum mass fraction of solasonine in D1 was detected in flower buds (135.63 µg/g), followed by leaf (113.29 µg/g), physiologically ripe fruit (74.74 µg/g), young fruit (61.33 µg/g), and mature fruit (21.55 µg/g). Comparing both genotypes, the genotype of bitter fruits (J10) contained higher mass fraction of solasonine, as one of the main factors for producing bitter flavour of the plant. Regarding the expression profiles of SGT1, in both genotypes, the activity of the gene was increased nearly parallel with the concentration of solasonine. In the J10 genotype, transcript level of the gene was significantly higher than the genotype of sweet fruits (D1). Although both D1 and J10 genotypes are possibly recommendable for human food consumption, D1 is more suitable for daily diet.




*Corresponding author:  email3  mahmoudbagheri@alumni.ut.ac.ir
                                          tel3  +98 26 3670 2983
                                          fax2  +98 26 3670 3776
                                           email3  ashah@ut.ac.ir
                                          tel3  +98 26 3222 7606
                                          fax2  +98 26 3222 7605

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