getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  
doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.02.17.5080

Biogas Production from Brewer’s Yeast Using an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor


Gregor Drago Zupančič1,2small orcid_display_4pp, Mario Panjičko1small orcid_display_4pp and Bruno Zelić3*small orcid_display_4pp


1Sustainable Technologies Development Centre Ltd, Dragutina Golika 63, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Marulićev trg 19, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia




Article history:
Received November 24, 2016
Accepted February 24, 2017
cc



Key words:
anaerobic digestion, ASBR, biogas, brewer’s yeast



Summary:
Renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly important in the beverage and food industries. In the brewing industry, a significant percentage of the used raw materials finishes the process as secondary resource or waste. The research on the anaerobic digestion of brewer’s yeast has been scarce until recent years. One of the reasons for this is its use as a secondary resource in the food industry and as cattle feed. Additionally, market value of brewer’s yeast is higher than its energy value. Due to the increase of energy prices, brewer’s yeast has become of interest as energy substrate despite its difficult degradability in anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic co-digestion of brewer’s yeast and anaerobically treated brewery wastewater was studied using a pilot-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) seeded with granular biomass. The experiments showed very good and stable operation with an organic loading rate of up to 8.0 kg/(m3·day), and with a maximum achieved organic loading rate of 13.6 kg/(m3·day) in a single cycle. A specific biogas productivity of over 0.430 m3/kg of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) inserted, and total COD removal efficiencies of over 90 % were achieved. This study suggests that the brewer’s yeast can be successfully digested in an ASBR without adverse effects on the biogas production from brewer’s yeast/wastewater mixtures of up to 8 % (by volume). By using the brewer’s yeast in the ASBR process, the biogas production from brewery wastewater could be increased by 50 %.




*Corresponding author:  email3  bzelic@fkit.hr
                                          tel3  +385 1 4597 281
                                          fax2  +385 1 4597 260





getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.02.17.4991 

Lactobacillus casei Encapsulated in Soy Protein Isolate and Alginate Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying



Jasmina Hadzieva1small orcid_display_4pp, Kristina Mladenovska1*small orcid_display_4pp, Maja Simonoska Crcarevska1small orcid_display_4ppMarija Glavaš Dodov1small orcid_display_4pp, Simona Dimchevska1small orcid_display_4pp, Nikola Geškovski1small orcid_display_4ppAnita Grozdanov2small orcid_display_4pp, Emil Popovski3small orcid_display_4pp, Gjorgji Petruševski4small orcid_display_4ppMarina Chachorovska4small orcid_display_4pp, Tanja Petreska Ivanovska1small orcid_display_4pp, Lidija Petruševska-Tozi1small orcid_display_4ppSonja Ugarkovic4small orcid_display_4pp and Katerina Goracinova1small orcid_display_4pp


1Faculty of Pharmacy, University ‘Ss Cyril and Methodius’, Mother Theresa 47, MK-1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
2Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University ‘Ss Cyril and Methodius’, Ruđer Bošković 26, MK-1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
3Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University ‘Ss. Cyril and Methodius’, Arhimedova 5, MK-1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
4Research and Development Unit, Alkaloid AD Skopje, Aleksandar Makedonski 12, MK-1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia




Article history:
Received September 16, 2016
Accepted February 8, 2017
cc


Key words:
Lactobacillus casei 01, alginate, soy protein isolate, microparticles, spray drying, formulation optimisation



Summary:
This article presents a novel formulation for preparation of Lactobacillus casei 01 encapsulated in soy protein isolate and alginate microparticles using spray drying method. A response surface methodology was used to optimise the formulation and the central composite face-centered design was applied to study the effects of critical material attributes and process parameters on viability of the probiotic after microencapsulation and in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Spherical microparticles were produced in high yield (64 %), narrow size distribution (d50=9.7 µm, span=0.47) and favourable mucoadhesive properties, with viability of the probiotic of 11.67, 10.05, 9.47 and 9.20 log CFU/g after microencapsulation, 3 h in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions and four-month cold storage, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the probiotic stability after microencapsulation, while differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry pointed to high thermal stability of the soy protein isolate-alginate microparticles with encapsulated probiotic. These favourable properties of the probiotic microparticles make them suitable for incorporation into functional food or pharmaceutical products.




*Corresponding author:  email3  krml@ff.ukim.edu.mk
                                          tel3  +389 70 384 648
                                          fax2  +389 23 123 054




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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.02.17.4786

Genetic, Biochemical, Nutritional and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Grown in Istria

Ana Miklavčič Višnjevec1small orcid_display_4pp, Ajda Ota2small orcid_display_4pp, Mihaela Skrt2small orcid_display_4pp, Bojan Butinar3small orcid_display_4ppSonja Smole Možina2small orcid_display_4pp, Nina Gunde Cimerman2,4small orcid_display_4pp, Marijan Nečemer5small orcid_display_4ppAlenka Baruca Arbeiter1small orcid_display_4pp, Matjaž Hladnik1small orcid_display_4pp, Marin Krapac6, Dean Ban6small orcid_display_4ppMilena Bučar-Miklavčič3small orcid_display_4pp, Nataša Poklar Ulrih2small orcid_display_4pp and Dunja Bandelj1*small orcid_display_4pp

1Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Glagoljaška 8, SI-6000 Koper, Slovenia
2Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva ulica 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3Science and Research Centre Koper, Garibaldijeva 1, SI-6000 Koper, Slovenia
4Centre of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins (CipKeBiP), Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5Jožef Stefan’ Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
6Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Ul. Karla Huguesa 8, HR-52440 Poreč, Croatia





Article history:
Received May 12, 2016
Accepted December 6, 2016
cc




Key words:
Punica granatum L., bioactive components, genetic characteristics, antimicrobial and antifungal activity

 


Summary:
This study characterises the genetic variability of local pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) germplasm from the Slovenian and Croatian areas of Istria. The bioactive components and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts of different parts of pomegranate fruit were also determined, along with their preliminary nutritional characterisation. Twenty-six different genotypes identified with microsatellite analysis indicate the great diversity of pomegranate in Istria. The pomegranate fruit ethanol extracts represent rich sources of phenolic compounds (mean value of the mass fraction in exocarp and mesocarp expressed as gallic acid is 23 and 16 mg/g, respectively). The ethanol extracts of pomegranate exocarp and mesocarp showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Exophiala dermatitidis and Staphylococcus aureus, and the same water extracts against S. aureus and Escherichia coliTo the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of the characterisation of pomegranate genetic resources from Istria at different levels, including the molecular, chemical, antimicrobial and nutritional properties.





*Corresponding author:  email3  dunja.bandelj@upr.si
                                          tel3  +386 5 611 7570
                                          fax2  +386 5 611 7571






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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.02.17.4896 

Recombinant Xylanase from Bacillus tequilensis BT21: Biochemical Characterisation and Its Application in the Production of Xylobiose from Agricultural Residues



Rakhee Khandeparker*small orcid_display_4pp, Pankaj Parabsmall orcid_display_4pp and Ujwala Amberkarsmall orcid_display_4pp


National Institute of Oceanography, CSIR, 403 004 Dona Paula, Goa, India



Article history:
Received July 15, 2016
Accepted February 28, 2017
cc


Key words:
enzyme, xylanase, alkaline pI, characterisation, Bacillus tequilensis, xylobiose


Summary:
Bacterial strain Bacillus tequilensis BT21 isolated from marine sediments was found to produce extracellular xylanase. The xynBT21 gene encoding xylanase enzyme was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene encoded a protein consisting of 213 amino acid residues with calculated molecular mass of 23.3 kDa. Purified recombinant xylanase had optimum activity at 60 °C and pH=6. The enzyme was highly stable in alkaline pH, at pH=7 it remained 100 % active for 24 h, while its activity increased at pH=8 and 9 during incubation. B. tequilensis BT21 xylanase had alkaline pI of 9.4 and belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 11. The mode of action of XynBT21 on beechwood xylan and xylooligosaccharides was studied. It hydrolysed xylooligosaccharides and beechwood xylan yielding mainly xylobiose (X2) with a small amount of xylose (X1), indicating that XynBT21 was probably an endo-acting xylanase. Enzymatic hydrolysis using wheat bran as a substrate revealed that xylanase reported here has the potential to produce xylobiose from wheat bran. Xylooligosaccharides, especially xylobiose, have strong bifidogenic properties and are increasingly used as a prebiotic. This is the first report that describes this novel xylanase enzyme from marine B. tequilensis BT21 used for the release of xylobiose from wheat bran.





*Corresponding author:  email3  rakhee@nio.org
                                          tel3  +91 832 2450 540
                                          fax2  +91 832 2450 606





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