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Advances in Mushroom Research in the Last Decade

Leifa Fan1*, Huijuan Pan1, Andrea Thomaz Soccol2, Ashok Pandey3 and Carlos Ricardo Soccol2


1
Institute of Horticulture, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 198 Shiqiao Road, 310021 Hangzhou-ZJ, PR China

2Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology Division, Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba-PR, Brazil
3Biotechnology Division, Regional Research Laboratory, Trivandrum 695 019, India

Article history:

Received November 30, 2005
Accepted March 11, 2006

Key words:

cytogenetics, genetic breeding, antimicrobial, antitumor, mushrooms, dietary supplement

Summary:

There has been a lot of progress in mushroom science and biotechnology in the last decade. The optimization of PFGE separation of fungal chromosomes allowed the study of the molecular karyotype of mushrooms and the assignment of genes to chromosomes. There are 115 genes encoded from different species of mushrooms. Cross breeding continues to be the principal method, but it is accompanied by the analyses of RAPD or RFLPs methods. The genetic makers are used and introduced into commercial large hybrids via introgression breeding. The complex traits such as yield, resistance to disease and quality characteristics, and quantitative traits more than one quantitative trait locus (QTL) are found and used in practice. The transformants or transgenic mutant strains were obtained by Agrobacterium system or particle bombardment. At least 651 species representing 182 genera of hetero- and homobasidiomycetes mushrooms were researched containing antitumor or immunostimulating polysaccharides. Ergosterol in the lipid fraction was identified as one of the most active constituents. New sesquiterpenoid hydroquinones, steroids, oxalic acid, triterpenes, water-soluble lignins, sulfated polysaccharides, protein-bound polysaccharides are researched intensively as antimicrobial or antiviral agents. Many small molecular mass compounds exhibit cytotoxic activities, such as illudins, leaianafulvene, triterpenes (ganoderic acids), acetoxyscirpenediol, ergosterol peroxide, sterols. There are many other compounds or activities found in the mushrooms, such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic action, anti-inflammatory effect, hepatoprotective compounds, psychoactive compounds and activities.

 


*Corresponding author:           yyssyjz@zaas.org
                                               ++86 571 86 404 319
                                               ++86 571 86 404 319

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