Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

Miguel Espino-Díaz1, David Roberto Sepúlveda1, Gustavo González-Aguilar2 and Guadalupe I. Olivas1

1Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD), Rio Conchos S/N, MX-31570 Cuauhtémoc, Mexico
2Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD), Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, MX-83000 Hermosillo, Mexico

Article history:
Received    May 7, 2015
Accepted   May 16, 2016

Key words:
apple aroma, volatile compounds, precursor, lipoxygenase (LOX), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), pathway

Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regardingm the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.


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