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Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers


Vanja Lovrić, Predrag Putnik*, Danijela Bursać Kovačević, Marijana Jukić and Verica Dragović-Uzelac


Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10 000 Zagreb, Croatia




Article history:
Received March 7, 2016
Accepted April 24, 2017



Key words:
microwave-assisted extraction, blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) flowers, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity



Summary:
This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays). The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70 % aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol), extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min) and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences at a 95 % confidence level (p≤0.05). The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols) than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70 % aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50 % aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval) has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.




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