Guidelines for Writing References

All references appearing in the text must be listed in the list of references, numerated in the order they are cited in the text, with nothing except the ordinal number of the reference written in italic. When citing multiple references, use commas (without spaces) to separate them, e.g. (2,3,5), and an unspaced en dash to join a range inlcuding three or more consecutive references, e.g. (5-7) or (14,17-20). If citing author name(s) in the text, give reference number immediately after the name, e.g. Pratchett (6) or Adams et al. (7). References in figures and tables must follow the consecutive order in the text in accordance with the sequence established by the first mentioning of the particular figure or table in the text.

Recommended style for writing references is according to ICMJE. Basic format for writing references in the list of references is as follows: Autor AA, Author BB. Full title of article. Abbrev J Title. Year;volume(issue):pages. For other formats, see examples. For abbreviations for periodicals see Web of Science Journal Title Abbreviations. Page numbers should be written as for example 11-5, 26-32, 104-18, 204-9, etc. Doi numbers must be provided for all references that contain it, and written in a separate line at the end of the corresponding reference in the format If in doubt, doi numbers can be checked at Authors must be careful not to repeat the same reference.

All references need to be cited as in the following examples:

Citing journal articles:

1. Shao W, Pan X, Liu X, Teng F, Yuan S. Microencapsulation of algal oil using spray drying technique. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2018;56(1):65-70. 

2. Rohm H, Schäper C, Zahn S Interesterified fats in chocolate and bakery products: A concise review. LWT – Food Sci Technol. 2018;87:379–84.

3. Gao X, Xu N, Li S, Liu L. Metabolic engineering of Candida glabrata for diacetyl production. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(3):e89854.

Citing journal articles without doi numbers:

4. Kowalski S, Lukasiewicz M, Bednarz S, Panus M. Diastase number changes during thermal and microwave processing of honey. Czech J Food Sci. 2012;30:21-6.

Citing articles with more than 6 authors:

5. Ujhelyi G, Vajda B, Béki E, Neszlényi K, Jakab J, Jánosi A, et al. Surveying the RR soy content of commercially available food products in Hungary. Food Control. 2008;19:967-73.

Citing articles in the original language other than English:

6. Oliveira ALD, Santos Junior V, Liotti RG, Zilioli E, Spinosa WA, Ribeiro-Paes JT. Study of bacteria Gluconobacter sp.: Isolation, purification, phenotypic and molecular identification. Ciênc Tecnol Aliment. 2010;30:106–12 (in Portuguese).


Citing articles published online ahead of print:

7. Bušić A, Kundas S, Morzak G, Belskaya H, Marđetko N, Ivančić Šantek M, Komes D, Novak S, Šantek B. Recent trends in biodiesel and biogas production. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2018;56(2):in press.


Citing books:

8. Walker JM, editor. Methods in biotechnology. Totowa, NJ, USA: Humana Press Inc; 2006.

9. Holzapfel WH, Wood BJB, editors. Lactic acid bacteria: Biodiversity and taxonomy. London, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 2014.

Citing chapter in a book:

10. Law BA. Enzymes in dairy product manufacture. In: Van Oort M, Whitehurst RJ, editors. Enzymes in food technology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009. pp. 88-102.

11. Singh RS, Singh RP. Inulinases. In: Pandey A, Negi S, Soccol CR, editors. Current developments in biotechnology and bioengineering. Production, isolation and purification of industrial products. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Inc; 2017. pp. 423-46.


Citing a chapter in a book from a book series:  

12. Harrison RG, Bagajewicz MJ. Predicting the solubility of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. In: García-Fruitós E, editor. Insoluble proteins, methods in molecular biology (Methods and protocols), vol. 1258. New York, NY, USA: Humana Press; 2015. pp. 403-8.

13. Gerwig GJ, te Poele EM, Dijkhuizen L, Kamerling J P. Stevia glycosides: Chemical and enzymatic modifications of their carbohydrate moieties to improve the sweet-tasting quality. In: Baker DC, editor. Advances in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry, vol. 73. Cambridge, MA, USA: Elsevier; 2016. pp. 1-72.


Citing e-books:

14. Grivetti LE, Shapiro HY, editors. Chocolate, history, culture, and heritage. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009. Available from:  


Citing guides, manuals:  

15. SAS/STATÒ user's guide, v. 14.3. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute, Inc; 2017. Available from:
16. NIST/SEMATECH e-handbook of statistical methods. Gaithersburg, MD, USA: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), US Department of Commerce; 2012. Available from:

17. Fernández-López J, Alía R. EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for chestnut (Castanea sativa). Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI); 2003. Available from:

18. Bacteriological analytical manual. Silver Spring, MD, USA: US Food and Drug Administration; 2018. Available from:


Citing theses:

19. Arciniega Castillo AC. Modeling the survival of Salmonella in soy sauce-based products stored at two different temperatures [MSc Thesis]. Lincoln, Nebraska, USA: University of Nebraska-Lincoln; 2017.

20. Ivanova P. Production, characterization and enzymatic modification of protein isolates from sunflower meal [PhD Thesis]. Plovdiv, Bulgaria: University of Food Technologies; 2014 (in Bulgarian).

Citing patents:

21. Luquet FM, Mathieu M, Monique M. Growth inhibition of microorganisms by lactic acid bacteria

WO 2008077229 A1. 2008
22. Howard AN, Nigdikar SV, Rajput-Williams J, Williams NR. Food supplements. US patent US 6086910 A. 2000.

Citing symposiums, congresses, proceedings:

23. Brnčić M, Herceg Ljubić I, Šubarić D, Badanjak M, Rimac Brnčić S, Tripalo B, et al. Influence of power ultrasound on textural properties of corn starch gels. In: Fischer P, Pollard M, Windhab EJ, editors. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Food Rheology and Structure; 2009 June 15-18, Zürich, Switzerland: Laboratory of Food Process Engineering, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, ETH Zürich; 2009. pp. 500–1.

24. Coppa GV. Biochemical characterisation of the carbohydrate content in the Parmigiano Reggiano cheese at different ripening times. Proceedings of the conference acquisitions related to the nutritional value of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese; 2008 March 8; Reggio Emilia, Italy; 2008. pp. 57-66 (in Italian).


Citing official methods:  

25. AOAC Official Method 16.032. Total solids, Method I - Official final action. Rockville, MD, USA: AOAC International; 1980.
26. ASTM D882-12. Standard test method for tensile properties of thin plastic sheeting. West Conshohocken, PA, USA: ASTM International; 2012.  
27. ISO 21569:2005. Foodstuffs – Methods of analysis for the detection of genetically modified organisms and derived products – Quantitative nucleic acid based methods. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization (ISO); 2005.
28. AACC Method 44-15.02. Moisture – Air-oven methods. St. Paul, MN, USA: American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) International; 2010.

Citing official methods in other languages than English: 

29. Act on Animal Welfare NN 102/2017. Zagreb, Croatia: Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia; 2017 (in Croatian). Available from:

30. LST ISO 6885:2000. Animal and vegetable fats and oils. Determination of anisidine value. Vilnius, Lithuania: The Lithuanian Standards Board; 2000 (in Lithuanian). 
31. HRN ISO 1871:2017. Food and feed products - General guidelines for the determination of nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method (ISO 1871:2009). Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization (ISO); 2017 (in Croatian). 
32. PN-A-79529-5:2005. Spirit drinks and bottled spirits. Methods of tests. Part 5: Determination of total extract content. Warsaw, Poland: The Polish Committee for Standardization (PKN); 2005 (in Polish).


Citing reports: 

33. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Assessment of one published review on health risks associated with phosphate additives in food. EFSA J. 2013;11:3444–71.

34. WHO food additives series 67: Safety evaluation of certain food additives. Seventy-sixth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Geneva, Switzerland: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization (FAO/ WHO). 2012. Available from:

Citing software: 

35. TIBCO Statistica, v. 13.3.0, TIBCO Software Inc, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2017. Available from:
SilkyPix Developer Studio Pro8, v. Tegelen, The Netherlands: Globell B.V.; 2018. Available from:


Citing databases: 

37. NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library, NIST v17, v. 2.3. Gaithersburg, MD, USA: National Institute of Standards and Technology; 2017. Available from:
38. NCBI Resource Coordinators. Database Resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45(D1):D12-7.   

39. Placzek S, Schomburg I, Chang A, Jeske L, Ulbrich M, Tillack J, Schomburg D. BRENDA in 2017: new perspectives and new tools in BRENDA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45(D1):D380–8.   
40Caspi R, Billington R, Ferrer L, Foerster H, Fulcher CA, Keseler IM, et al. The MetaCyc database of metabolic pathways and enzymes and the BioCyc collection of pathway/genome databases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44(D1): D471–80.  

41. ZODB – A native object database for Python. Richardson, TX, USA: Zope Foundation Inc.; 2016. Available from:
42. Irish Food Composition Database. Cork, Ireland: University College Cork; 2018. Available from:
43The UniProt Consortium. UniProt: the universal protein knowledgebase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017; 45(D1)D158–69.  

44. Finn RD, Coggill P, Eberhardt RY, Eddy SR, Mistry J, Mitchell AL. The Pfam protein families database: towards a more sustainable future. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44(D1):D279–85.  

Citing electronic material, websites:

45. Huntrods D. Carrot profile. Agricultural Marketing Resource Center (AgMRC). Ames, IA, USA: Iowa State University; 2013. Available from:
46. Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2016. ISAAA Brief No. 52. Ithaca, NY, USA: ISAAA (The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications); 2016. Available from:
47. Ingredients and packaging. Silver Spring, MD, USA: US Food and Drug Administration; 2018. Available from:  
48. Werner WSM, Smekal W, Powell CJ. Simulation of electron spectra for surface analysis (SESSA), v. 2.1, User's guide. Gaithersburg, MD, USA: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); 2017. Available from:  
49. Foodborne diseases active surveillance network (FoodNet): FoodNet 2015 Surveillance report (Final Data). Atlanta, GA, USA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); 2017. Available from:
50. Annual report on the results of analyses of official food and feed control in 2015. Zagreb, Croatia: The Ministry of Agriculture in cooperation with the Croatian Food Agency (HAH); 2015 (in Croatian). Available from:

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