Manuscript Organization

All papers must be written in English (preferably UK for non-native speakers). If English is not the authors’ first language, it is highly recommended that the manuscript be given to a native speaker for editing and proofreading. The submission may be rejected if written in poor English, or not written according to the instructions to authors.

Authors can use the template, but are advised to read the instructions thoroughly beforehand. Papers should be written in Arial, font size 11, spacing 1.5. For paper layout use paper size A4, margines set to normal, background must be white. 

All headings (SUMMARY, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, FUNDING, CONFLICT OF INTEREST, REFERENCES) must be written in capital letters and placed above the text (paragraph). Second and third order headings (subheadings) should be written with only first word beginning with capital letter. Subheadings may be used in Materials and Methods and Results and Discussion sections to simplify the presentation, and they should not be repeated. Second order headings should be placed above the text and written in italic. Third order headings should be written in normal font and placed above the text. Fourth order headings can be used only if necessary (in general, they should be avoided) and should be written in normal font in line with the text, separated with a full stop from the remaining text.

Latin words, phrases and abbreviations, including generic and specific names, should be written in italic throughout the text. Names of microorganisms are written in italic only on genus and species level, with only the genus name capitalised.

The use of nonstandard abbreviations (initialisms or acronyms) that are not widely accepted is not recommended. The use of too many abbreviations, which makes reading difficult, should also be avoided.

The cited references must be numbered consecutively throughout the text with ordinal numbers of the references in round brackets, and only the number written in italic. Further instructions how to write the list of references are given under References.

Equations should be written in a separate line and numbered consecutively with a number between forward slashes (/1/, /2/ etc.). When cited in text, abbreviation Eq. or Eqs. should be used (Eq. 1, Eqs. 2 and 3 etc.).

The position of figures and tables should be marked in the text. If figure consists of multiple panels, all should be mentioned in the text.

All research papers (original scientific papers, preliminary communications or scientific notes) should contain the following sections:


  • Title of the manuscript
  • Running title
  • Authors' names and affiliations
  • Contact details of corresponding author in the footnote
  • Summary
  • Key words
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results and Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • Funding (optional)
  • Conflict of interest (optional)
  • References 


Original scientific papers report unpublished results of original research. They must contain significant and original observations to be critically evaluated. Experimental data should be presented in a way that enables reproduction and verification of analyses and deductions on which the conclusions are based. They should contain no more than 7000 words (including figures, tables and references), not more than 8 figures and tables combined, and maximum 50 references.

Preliminary communications include short information on the results of scientific research which require immediate publication. They should contain no more than 6000 words (including figures, tables and references), not more than 6 figures and tables combined, and maximum 40 references.

Scientific notes include reports on shorter but completed research and should be concise. They should contain no more than 5000 words (including figures, tables and references), not more than 4 figures and tables combined, and maximum 30 references.

Review and minireview papers should be written by well-recognized experts in the field rather than someone less experienced. Reviews (up to 10000 words, 6 figures and tables combined, and 150 references) are original, critical and up-to-date surveys of an area in which, preferably, the author himself/herself is active. They should include recent references from international publications. Minireviews are papers reviewing narrower topics of particular scientific interest (up to 6000 words, 4 figures and tables combined, and 100 references). They should give up-to-date state of the art of the topic they cover. Manuscripts written in form of (mini)review papers must also contain title of the manuscript, running title, authors' names and affiliations, contact details of corresponding author in the footnote, summary, key words, introduction and conclusion chapters, while the body should contain subheadings that reflect the content of the manuscript, with the rules for grading the subheadings being the same. If figures and tables are used, their position must be indicated in the text, and attention must be paid to the order of references, as figures and tables must also follow the consecutive order of references in the text. Authors must be careful not to use double references.

of the manuscript should be informative but concise and explain the nature of the work. It must be understandable for readers outside the field, but should contain sufficient details for indexing purposes. It should not exceed 120 characters (with spaces), and all nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs in the title must be written with first capital letter.

Running title should be concise and contain no more than 6-7 words, written with first capital letter of each word. It should clearly present the topic of the paper.

Full names (first names, then surnames; surnames must be underlined) of all authors should be written, with asterisk (*) next to the name of the corresponding author.

Affiliations (institutional addresses) should be written in English and marked with numbers in superscript next to the author's surname (the affiliation of first author should be marked with 1, second with 2 etc.). If all authors are from the same institution, numbers are not needed.

Contact details of corresponding author should be given in the footnote at the bottom of the title page (*Corresponding author: Phone:…; Fax:...; E-mail:…).


The summary (abstract of the paper) should not be longer than 250 words in a single paragraph. It should explain the aim of the paper and include the most relevant results and conclusions, emphasizing the importance and novelty of the work. No abbreviations, equations, illustrations, figures, tables or references should appear in the summary. The information in the summary should agree with the rest of the text and all information in it should appear in the body of the paper. Directly below the summary the key words should be presented. The summary paragraph should contain all key words.

Key words

Key words should list the main topic of the paper for indexing purposes, so they should not be too general. Maximum 6 words or phrases can be used, which should be separated by commas. Use of abbreviations as key words should be avoided, except for well-known and standard abbreviations (such as HPLC, PCR etc.). Key words that do not appear anywhere in the text should not be used.


The introductory part should clearly describe the aim of the research. Sufficient references to relevant previous publications along with a brief discussion and conclusions of past research should be given. A short section explaining the relevance of the presented research in that context should be included. It should be pointed out why the methodology used in the present study was chosen and why it will provide new insights.


Experimental part should be written clearly and in sufficient detail about the used protocol to allow the work to be repeated. Detailed description is required only for new techniques and procedures, while the known methods must be cited in the references with only a short description of the procedure. For all chemicals and equipment used, full data should be given, including the name of the product, company/manufacturer (do not cite suppliers, only manufacturers), city and country (state and country) of origin. For all equipment, model number should also be provided. Computer software, search tools and databases should be cited in the reference list. Information about the origin of samples (e.g. meat, plants, etc.) must be given in detail (manufacturer if applicable, city, state where applicable, and country of origin). Origin of the products purchased from local producers or markets must also be specified. Details on organism(s) studied (its origin, which collection (name, city and country of origin) it was taken from) and, when relevant, their pre-experiment handling and care should be given. For a field study, a description of the study site, including the significant physical and biological features, and the precise location should be included. The sampling design should be described (controls, number of samples, treatments, measured variables, replication, final form of data etc.). Statistical procedures and software used to analyze the results, including the probability level at which the significance was determined, should be described and cited. If citing more than one method of the same standards organization, each method must be cited separately. To see how to cite, go to References.


Results and Discussion should be written as one combined section in order to simplify the presentation. The body of the Results and Discussion section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the tables and figures.

Tables and/or figures should be sequenced to present the key findings in a logical order and assigned numbers in order in which they are referred to in the text, i.e. the first table should be cited as Table 1, the next Table 2 and so on. The first figure should be cited as Fig. 1, the next Fig. 2, etc. Their position should be indicated in the text. For further instructions see  Table and Figure Guidelines.

Discussion should not be merely the repetition of the obtained results and should address each of the experiments or studies for which the results are presented. It should provide authors' interpretation of the significance of the obtained results. The findings should be related to the previous studies the authors and other investigators have done. Crucial information in the research should be emphasized and interpreted in the context of previously published work.


This section must not be merely the repetition of the content of the preceding sections. It cannot be omitted or merged with the previous section. Conclusion should concisely and clearly explain the significance and novelty of the results obtained in the presented work. References are not to be cited here.


Acknowledgements to colleagues, institutions or companies for support, donations or any other assistance need to be put at the end of the manuscript, before references. Contributors mentioned here cannot be considered as authors of the manuscript.


If the presented data are a result of a funded project or grant, details of all funding sources for the research should be written here. Authors should provide full official funding agency name(s) and grant number(s). If needed, the relevant agency and grant number can be stated for each author, in which case only authors' initials should be written.



If the authors have a conflict of interest, for example if they are analysing a product of the company in which they work for or use a software or tool developed by their company, it should be clearly stated in the manuscript.


Authors bear the responsibility for the accuracy of the references; therefore, each reference should be thoroughly checked. References should be selective rather than extensive (with the exception of review articles). It is advisable to limit the number of references to 50 in original scientific paper, 40 in preliminary communication, 30 in scientific note, and 100-150 in minireview and review, respectively. Preferably references should include recent international publications, unless giving a review of the field, must reflect the topic of the manuscript and show the relevance to the Journal. They must all be written in English; references originally written in other languages must be translated into English and the language of origin must be written in brackets at the end of the reference. When citing databases, software, tools and other online services, authors are advised to use their recommendations how to cite them. If the original literature cited has not been available, the authors should quote the source used. Unpublished data should be mentioned only in the text (data not shown), and not appear in the reference list.

All references appearing in the text must be listed in the list of references, numerated in the order they are cited in the text, with nothing except the ordinal number of the reference written in italic. When citing multiple references, use commas (without spaces) to separate them, e.g. (2,3,5), and an unspaced en dash to join a range inlcuding three or more consecutive references, e.g. (5-7) or (14,17-20). If citing author name(s) in the text, give reference number immediately after the name, e.g. Pratchett (6) or Adams et al. (7). References in figures and tables must follow the consecutive order in the text in accordance with the sequence established by the first mentioning of the particular figure or table in the text.

Recommended style for writing references is according to ICMJE. Basic format for writing references in the list of references is as follows: Autor AA, Author BB. Full title of article. Abbrev J Title. Year;volume(issue):pages. For other formats, see examples. For abbreviations for periodicals see Web of Science Journal Title Abbreviations. Page numbers should be written as for example: 11-5, 26-32, 104-18, 204-9, etc. Doi numbers must be provided for all references that contain it, and written in a separate line at the end of the corresponding reference in the format If in doubt, doi numbers can be checked at Authors must be careful not to repeat the same reference.

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