Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Fermentation on the Surface and Functional Properties of Pea Protein-Enriched Flour
Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A8, Canada
Received: 30 July 2017
Accepted: 13 July 2018
pea protein-enriched flour, fermentation, functional properties, lactic acid bacteria
The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation on the functional and physicochemical properties of pea protein-enriched flour (PPF) was investigated. Over the course of the fermentation the extent of hydrolysis increased continuously until reaching a maximum degree of hydrolysis of 13.5 % after 11 h. The resulting fermented flour was then adjusted to either pH=4 or 7 prior to measuring the surface and functional attributes as a function of fermentation time. At pH=4 surface charge, as measured by zeta potential, initially increased from +14 to +27 mV after 1 h of fermentation, and then decreased to +10 mV after 11 h; whereas at pH=7 the charge gradually increased from –37 to –27 mV over the entire fermentation time. Surface hydrophobicity significantly increased at pH=4 as a function of fermentation time, whereas at pH=7 fermentation induced only a slight decrease in PPF surface hydrophobicity. Foam capacity was highest at pH=4 using PPF fermented for 5 h whereas foam stability was low at both pH values for all samples. Emulsifying activity sharply decreased after 5 h of fermentation at pH=4. Emulsion stability improved at pH=7 after 5 h of fermentation as compared to the control. Oil-holding capacity improved from 1.8 g/g at time 0 to 3.5 g/g by the end of 11 h of fermentation, whereas water hydration capacity decreased after 5 h, then increased after 9 h of fermentation. These results indicate that the fermentation of PPF can modify its properties, which can lead towards its utilization as a functional food ingredient.
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