Effect of Adding Guava (Psidium guajava) Epicarp Extract Flour on the Physicochemical, Textural, Colour and Sensory Properties of Frankfurters
1Facultad de Ingeniería y Administración, Departamento de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia – Sede Palmira, Carrera 32 No. 12-00, Palmira, Valle del Cauca, Colombia
Received: 18 November 2020
Accepted: 21 April 2021
carotenoids, guava epicarp, nitrite reduction, frankfurters, fat oxidation
Research background. The industrial transformation of tropical fruits, and in particular guava, generates a large quantity of by-products that are generally disposed of as organic waste. In these by-products a large quantity of bioactive substances is concentrated, such as carotenoids, which can be used for the partial substitution of nitrites in meat sausages without affecting their physicochemical, colour and conservation characteristics. Although there are some studies in this regard, there is still a lack of research, especially on guava residues, to verify this hypothesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the components of the guava epicarp extract on the physicochemical, textural, colour and sensory properties of frankfurters.
Experimental approach. Three treatments were investigated (25, 50 and 75 % nitrite replacement with guava epicarp flour extract), along with a control treatment without the extract. The physicochemical properties, colour coordinates, and texture parameters were analysed, and a sensory evaluation was also carried out. The treatment that presented the best results was subjected to a stability analysis over 30 days.
Results and conclusions. The addition of 25 % guava epicarp flour extract gave the best results, since it did not affect the colouration of the sausages or their physicochemical and textural properties. Likewise, during the stability analysis over time, the parameters related to fat oxidation were not affected, and final products had a residual nitrite load of (23.6±0.2) mg/kg, lower than the maximum allowed (150 mg/kg).
Novelty and scientific contribution. The partial substitution of the nitrites in frankfurters with the carotenoids from the guava epicarp flour added in a mass fraction up to 25 % can be a viable alternative to produce sausages with lower content of nitrites, without affecting their colouration or shelf life. This is important for the meat industry, which favours the development of new products using substances of natural origin.