Gelatine Film Incorporated with Clitoria ternatea-Derived Anthocyanin Microcapsules, An Effective Food Packaging Material Against Foodborne Pathogens
1Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Lot 1988 Kawasan Perindustrian Bandar Vendor, Taboh Naning, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia
2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
3School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia
Received: 23 November 2020
Accepted: 28 September 2021
gelatine film, food packaging, anthocyanin, natural antimicrobial agent, foodborne pathogens, Clitoria ternatea
Research background. Microbial contamination in food products is one of the significant causes of food spoilage and foodborne illnesses. The use of active packaging films incorporated with antimicrobial agents can be a measure to extend food quality and shelf life. Nevertheless, synthetic antimicrobial agents such as silver, copper, titanium, and zinc in the packaging films raised concerns among consumers due to toxicity issues.
Experimental approach. The current study aims to develop biodegradable gelatine-based edible films incorporated with microcapsules of Clitoria ternatea-derived anthocyanin as a natural antimicrobial agent. The impact of anthocyanin microcapsule incorporation on the morphology, thermal, mechanical, water vapour barrier, and physicochemical properties of the gelatine films were evaluated in this study. The effectiveness of the developed films against foodborne pathogens and their application for perishable food protection against microbial spoilage were also studied.
Results and conclusions. The results show that incorporating anthocyanin microcapsules enhances the gelatine film physical and mechanical properties by increasing the thickness, tensile strength, Young's modulus, and elongation at break of the films. SEM analysis revealed that the films surface morphology with anthocyanin microcapsules exhibit a homogeneous and smooth surface texture compared to the control. The thermogravimetric analysis also showed a slight improvement in the thermal properties of the developed films. Agar well diffusion assay revealed that the developed films exhibit significant inhibition against a broad-spectrum of bacterium. Furthermore, the films composed of gelatine anthocyanin microcapsules significantly reduced the total viable count of microorganisms in the bean curd at the storage time interval of 12 days compared with the control films.
Novelty and scientific contribution. Increasing global awareness for healthy and safe food with minimal synthetic ingredients as preservatives has sparked the search for use of antimicrobial agents of natural origins in active food packaging material. In this study, a safe and effective active packaging film was developed using the environmental friendly biopolymer, gelatine films incorporated with microcapsules of Clitoria ternatea-derived anthocyanin as a natural antimicrobial agent. This study demonstrated that such a method not only be able to improve the film physical properties but also significantly prolong the shelf life of food products from microbial spoilage.