From the Autochthonous Grape Varieties of the Kastav Region (Croatia) to the Belica Wine
1University of Rijeka, Faculty of Health Studies, Viktora Cara Emina 5, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
2University of Rijeka, Trg braće Mažuranića 10, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
3University of Rijeka, Department of Biotechnology, Radmile Matejčić 2, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
4University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Trg Marka Marulića 19, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
5University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetošimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Received: 2 April 2021
Accepted: 14 November 2021
Belica wine; autochthonous wines; autochthonous grape varieties; polyphenols; FTIR
Research background. Coastal region of Croatia is rich in autochthonous grape varieties. Many of them have been almost abandoned such as the autochthonous varieties of Kastav (Croatia), used for the production of the Kastavska Belica wine. Therefore, the rationale of the presented study was to characterize autochthonous varieties 'Verdić', 'Mejsko belo', 'Jarbola', 'Divjaka' and 'Brajkovac' grape varieties. In addition, we performed a molecular characterization of the corresponding Belica wines.
Experimental approach. irstly, for five autochthons grape varieties, their genetic origin and ampelographic and economic characteristics were determined. Standard physico-chemical profiles and phenolic components by use of liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QQQ) were determined for 12 corresponding wines from different producers. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for determination of standard physicochemical parameters.
Results and conclusions. Ampelographic analysis, which includes the data on producing characteristics and cluster and berry composition of varieties, revealed significant differences between analysed grape varieties. Results of physico-chemical analysis of the Belica wine showed that all wines met the requirements needed for the production of quality and top quality wines labelled with protected designation of origin (PDO) in Croatian coastal region. The LC-QQQ analysis confirmed the presence of different phenolic components in the Belica wines, where the most prominent phenols were flavonoids from the flavan-3-ol group. Overall, these results showed that autochthonous grapes from the Kastav region can be used for production of wines with added market value due to a growing demand for autochthonous products on the global market.
Novelty and scientific contribution. The presented results represent scientific insight and a basis for further determination of the optimal cultivation technology aimed to take advantage of the best characteristics of each variety for production of a wine with desirable features.