Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp as a Functional Food Product

Renata Różyło1*, Urszula Gawlik-Dziki2, Dariusz Dziki3, Anna Jakubczyk2, Monika Karaś2 and Krzysztof Różyło4

Department of Equipment Operation and Maintenance in the Food Industry, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Doświadczalna Str. 44, PL-20-280 Lublin, Poland

2Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Skromna Str. 8, PL-20-704 Lublin, Poland
3Thermal Engineering Department, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Doświadczalna Str. 44, PL-20-280 Lublin, Poland
4Department of Agricultural Ecology, Faculty of Agrobioengineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka Str. 13, PL-20-950 Lublin, Poland

Article history

Received December 10, 2013
Accepted July 16, 2014

Key words

pumpkin, bread, texture, antioxidants, bioaccessibility in vitro, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition


In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat flour with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids) and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material a er the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefits.

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