Control of Penicillium sp. on the Surface of Italian Salami Using Essential Oils
Aline Maria Cenci1, Mariane Lobo Ugalde1,2, Juliana Steffens1*, Eunice Valduga1, Rogério Luis Cansian1
and Geciane Toniazzo1
1University of Erechim, Av. 7 de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS, Brazil
2Federal Institute of Farroupilha, Campus Júlio de Castilhos, São João do Barro Preto s/n, CP. 38, 98130-000
Júlio de Castilhos, RS, Brazil
Received August 26, 2014
Accepted May 6, 2015
essential oil, Italian salami, Penicillium sp.
The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro effects of rosemary, salvia, oregano and clove oils at volume fractions of 1000, 750, 500, 250, 100, 50, 26, 10 and 5 μL/mL (100, 75, 50, 25, 10, 5, 3, 1 and 0.5 %) on the growth of contaminating fungi in salami. The in vitro effect of the oils against fungal growth was indicated by zones of inhibition. Rosemary oil showed an inhibition zone of 9.6 mm only at the maximal volume fraction (1000 μL/mL). Salvia oil showed inhibition zones of 12.2, 11.2 and 10.5 mm only at the three highest fractions tested. Based on the inhibition zones, clove oil at 125 and 250 μL/mL, oregano oil at 250 and 500 μL/mL and a mixture (1:1 by volume) of the two oils at 100 μL/mL were selected to be applied to the surface of salamis. A significant reduction of fungal growth in all of the oil-treated samples was confirmed by visual inspection. A sensory analysis revealed that the samples treated with 125 μL/mL of clove oil or 100 μL/mL of a mixture of oregano and clove oil showed no significant flavour differences compared with the control. Carvacrol and eugenol were the principal compounds in oregano and clove oils, respectively, and were most likely responsible for the antifungal activity.
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