getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  
doi: 10.17113/ftb. 

Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread


Muammer Kaplan1, Öznur Karaoglu1, Nazife Eroglu1 and Sibel Silici2*

1TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Food Institute, Gebze, TR-41470 Kocaeli, Turkey
2Erciyes University, Agriculture Faculty, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, TR-38039 Kayseri, Turkey

Article history:
Received    February 7, 2016
Accepted   July 29, 2016

Key words:
bee bread, fatty acid composition, proximate composition, monofloral pollen, pollen analysis

Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4 %), Trifolium spp. (85.6 %), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2 %), Citrus spp. (61.4 %) and Helianthus annuus (45.4 %). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9 %, ash between 1.9 and 2.54 %, fat between 5.9 and 11.5 %, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3 %. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)-octadeca- 9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3 %. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.

*Corresponding author:  email3
                                      tel3  +90 352 207 6666
                                      fax2  +90 352 437 6209

Search FTB

Follow us

 facebook 1 twitter bird_icon LI In Bug


QR Code


We use cookies to improve our website and your experience when using it. Cookies used for the essential operation of the site have already been set. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

I accept cookies from this site.

EU Cookie Directive Module Information