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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.01.17.4861 

Differentiation of Commercial PDO Wines Produced in Istria (Croatia) According to Variety and Harvest Year Based on HS-SPME-GC/MS Volatile Aroma Compound Profiling

 

Igor Lukić* and Ivana Horvat
 

Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Karla Huguesa 8, HR-52440 Poreč, Croatia




Article history:
Received  June 30, 2016
Accepted  November 11, 2016
cc
 


Key words:
monovarietal wine, Croatia, volatile aroma compounds, variety, harvest year, HS-SPME-GC/MS


 

Summary:
To differentiate monovarietal wines made from native and introduced varieties in Istria (Croatia), samples of Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat yellow from two harvest years (2013 and 2014) were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (HS-SPME-GC/MS) of volatile aroma compounds. Significant effects of variety and harvest year were determined, but their interaction complicated the differentiation. Particular compounds were consistent as markers of variety in both years: nerol for Malvazija, ethyl cinnamate and a tentatively identified isomer of dimethylbenzaldehyde for Chardonnay, and terpenes for Muscat yellow. Wines from 2013 contained higher concentrations of the majority of important volatiles. A 100 % correct differentiation of Malvazija istarska and Chardonnay wines according to both variety and harvest year was achieved by stepwise linear discriminant analysis.



 


*Corresponding author:  email3  igor@iptpo.hr
                                      tel3  +385 (0)52 408 327
                                      fax2  +385 (0)52 431 659

 


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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.01.17.4638 

Optimisation of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical and Bioactive Properties

 

Hasene Keskin Çavdar, Derya Koçak Yanık*, Uğur Gök and Fahrett in Göğüş
 

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gaziantep University, University Boulevard, TR-27310 Gaziantep, Turkey




Article history:
Received February 9, 2016
Accepted September 20, 2016
cc
 


Key words:
pomegranate seed oil, microwave-assisted solvent extraction, extraction optimisation, bioactive properties



 

Summary:
Pomegranate seed oil was extracted in a closed-vessel high-pressure microwave system. The characteristics of the obtained oil, such as fatty acid composition, free fatty acidity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour, were compared to those of the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction. Response surface methodology was applied to optimise extraction conditions: power (176–300 W), time (5–20 min), particle size (d=0.125–0.800 mm) and solvent to sample ratio (2:1, 6:1 and 10:1, by mass). The predicted highest extraction yield (35.19 %) was obtained using microwave power of 220 W, particle size in the range of d=0.125–0.450 mm and solvent-to-sample ratio of 10:1 (by mass) in 5 min extraction time. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) resulted in higher extraction yield than that of Soxhlet (34.70 % in 8 h) or cold (17.50 % in 8 h) extraction. The dominant fatty acid of pomegranate seed oil was punicic acid (86 %) irrespective of the extraction method. Oil obtained by MASE had bett er physicochemical properties, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction.




 


*Corresponding author:  email3  dkocak@gantep.edu.tr
                                      tel3  +90 342 3172 303
                                      fax2  +90 342 3601 105

 


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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.01.17.4688 

The Effect of Autochthonous Starter Culture, Sugars and Temperature on the Fermentation of Slavonian Kulen


Krešimir Mastanjević1*, Dragan Kovačević1, Jadranka Frece2, Ksenija Markovand Jelka Pleadin3

1University of J. J. Strossmayer in Osijek, Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Department of Food Technology, Kuhačeva 20, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
2University of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Laboratory for General Microbiology and Food Microbiology, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3Croatian Veterinary Institute, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Savska Cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia


 


Article history:
Received  March 7, 2016
Accepted  October 12, 2016
cc
 


Key words:
Slavonian kulen, autochthonous starter culture, sugars, fermentation temperature, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties


 

Summary:
In this study, the effect of an isolated and well-characterised autochthonous starter culture, glucose and maltodextrin (w=0.8 %) and temperatures of 12 and 20 °C on fermentation and quality of Slavonian kulen produced using the traditional technology and recipe were investigated. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out after 20 days of fermentation. Upon the completion of the production process (90 days), a sensory analysis was carried out. Furthermore, pH value was continuously measured throughout the twenty day fermentation period. The addition of an autochthonous starter culture and sugars and different fermentation temperatures significantly (p<0.05) affected the instrumental colour and texture parameters of the Slavonian kulen. The fermentation was most intense in the samples with added autochthonous starter culture and 0.8 % glucose, and fermented at 20 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that samples with added autochthonous starter culture and fermented at higher temperature contained a higher number of lactic acid bacteria and coagulase-negative staphylococci and were safe. Sensory evaluation confirmed the outcomes of physicochemical and microbiological analyses and showed differences among samples fermented at two different temperatures and with added glucose or maltodextrin and an autochthonous starter culture.



 


*Corresponding author:  email3  Kresimir.Mastanjevic@ptfos.hr
                                      tel3  +385 31 224 300
                                      fax2  +385 31 207 115

 


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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.01.17.4824

Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) By-Product Protein Films Containing Thyme Essential Oil


 

Serpil Tural and Sadettin Turhan*

 

Department of Food Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ondokuz Mayis University, TR-55139 Samsun, Turkey


 


Article history:
Received  June 9, 2016
Accepted  October 13, 2016
cc
 


Key words:
anchovy by-product protein film, thyme essential oil, water vapour permeability, mechanical properties, antioxidant capacity


 
 

Summary:
In this study, some properties and antioxidant capacity of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholusby-product protein films with added 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of thyme essential oil were investigated. The films with thyme essential oil had higher elongation at break, water vapour permeability and oxygen permeability, lower solubility and tensile strength than control film (p<0.05). The incorporation of thyme essential oil affected transparency values of the films, but only the addition of 1.5 % of thyme essential oil significantly reduced the transparency (p<0.05). In the film matrix, molecular organisation and intermolecular interaction were changed by thyme essential oil addition. The films with thyme essential oil had a heterogeneous surface and a relatively smooth cross-section structure. Slightly higher phase transition and lower glass transition temperatures were observed in films with thyme essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the films was improved by incorporating thyme essential oil depending on its volume fraction.



 


*Corresponding author:  email3  sturhan@omu.edu.tr
                                      tel3  +90 362 312 1919
                                      fax2  +90 362 457 6034

 


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doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.01.17.4854 

Lactococci of Local Origin as Potential Starter Cultures for Traditional Montenegrin Cheese Production


Mirjana Bojanic Rasovic1, Sigrid Mayrhofer2*, Aleksandra Martinovic3Katharina Dürr2 and Konrad J. Domig2
 

1University of Montenegro, Biotechnical Faculty, Mihaila Lalića 1, ME-20000 Podgorica, Montenegro
2BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Food Science and Technology, Muthgasse 18, AT-1190 Vienna, Austria
3University of Donja Gorica, Faculty of Food Technology, Food Safety and Ecology, Donja Gorica, ME-81000 Podgorica, Montenegro




Article history:
Received  June 28, 2016
Accepted  November 8, 2016
cc 


Key words:
Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, traditional Montenegrin cheese, starter cultures, technological properties, safety assessment



Summary:
The aim of this study is to characterise and examine the biochemical properties of 40 Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from indigenous Montenegrin dairy products in order to explore their potential to be used as starter cultures for producing typical Montenegrin cheese, such as ‘bijeli sir’, ‘masni sir’ and ‘njeguški sir’. Their safety regarding the production of biogenic amines, the presence of antimicrobial resistance and the antibacterial activity against relevant pathogens and spoilage microorganisms has also been tested. Based on the characterisation, all strains belong to L. lactis ssp. lactis. Out of these 40 strains, 23 displayed rapid acidification ability and proteolysis. However, none of the strains exhibited the ability of lipid degradation. Most of the strains were not associated with any health risk investigated. Summing up, a large percentage (27.5 %) of the tested strains showed good properties. These strains should be further examined for their possible application as specific starter cultures in the production of indigenous cheese in Montenegro.



 


*Corresponding author:  email3  sigrid.mayrhofer@boku.ac.at
                                      tel3  +43 1 4765 475 455
                                      fax2  +43 1 4765 475 459

 

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