getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.04.17.5263 

Study on Power Ultrasound Optimization and Its Comparison with Conventional Thermal Processing for Treatment of Raw Honey


Sandeep Janghu1,2orcid tiny, Manab B. Bera2orcid tiny, Vikas Nanda2orcid tiny and Ashish Rawson3*orcid tiny

 

1Department of Food Product Development, IIFPT, MoFPI, Thanjavur, 613005 Tamil Nadu, India
2Department of Food Engineering and Technology, SLIET, Longowal, 148106 Sangrur, Punjab, India
3Department of Food Safety and Quality Testing, IIFPT, MoFPI, Thanjavur, 613005 Tamil Nadu, India


Article history:
Received: March 17, 2017
Accepted: October 30, 2017
cc


Key words:
power ultrasound, amplitude, diastase activity, HMF, thermal processing


Summary:
The present study was done to optimize the power ultrasound processing for maximizing diastase activity of and minimizing hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content in honey using response surface methodology. Experimental design with treatment time (1-15 min), amplitude (20-100 %) and volume (40-80 mL) as independent variables under controlled temperature conditions was studied and it was concluded that treatment time of 8 min, amplitude of 60 % and volume of 60 mL give optimal diastase activity and HMF content, i.e. 32.07 Schade units and 30.14 mg/kg, respectively. Further thermal profile analyses were done with initial heating temperatures of 65, 75, 85 and 95 ºC until temperature of honey reached up to 65 ºC followed by holding time of 25 min at 65 ºC, and the results were compared with thermal profile of honey treated with optimized power ultrasound. The quality characteristics like moisture, pH, diastase activity, HMF content, colour parameters and total colour difference were least affected by optimized power ultrasound treatment. Microbiological analysis also showed lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and in ultrasonically treated honey than in thermally processed honey samples complete destruction of coliforms, yeasts and moulds. Thus, it was concluded that power ultrasound under suggested operating conditions is an alternative nonthermal processing technique for honey.



*Coresponding author:  email3  ashishrawson@gmail.com, ashish.rawson@iifpt.edu.in

 getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.04.17.5128 

The Effect of Storage Time, Temperature and Type of Packaging on the Release of Phthalate Esters into Packed Acidic Liquids


Noushin Rastkari1,2*orcid tiny, Maryam Zare Jeddi2orcid tiny, Masud Yunesian3orcid tiny and Reza Ahmadkhaniha4orcid tiny

 

1Center for Water Quality Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Center for Air Pollution Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Department of Human Ecology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Article history:
Received: December 26, 2016
Accepted: August 25, 2017
cc

 

Key words:
phthalate esters, migration, storage condition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE)


Summary:
Acidic liquids such as verjuice, lemon juice and vinegar are frequently consumed in Iran. Different kinds of acidic liquids are packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles. There is evidence indicating that phthalates can leach from PET and HDPE bottles into their contents. In this work the effect of storage time, temperature and bottle type on the migration of phthalates from packaging materials into acidic liquids is studied by analyzing the samples stored under different conditions, before storage and after 2, 4 and 6 months of storage. The determined mean phthalate concentrations in μg/L were: <0.04 to 0.501 in verjuice, <0.04 to 0.231 in lemon juice and <0.04 to 0.586 in vinegar. The highest concentrations of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) were found in PET and HDPE bottles, respectively. Results of analyses before and after storage indicate that under some storage conditions, the concentrations of DEP, DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) increased in acidic liquids. The  possible migration of phthalic acid esters from plastic packaging materials into the contents was indicated by the results of the present study.



*Corresponding author:  tel3  +98 2188 978 395
                                           fax2  +98 2188 978 398
                                           email3  nr_rastkari@yahoo.com 

 getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.04.17.5331 

Synthesis of Feruloyl Ester Using Bacillus subtilis AKL 13 Lipase Immobilized on Celite® 545


Karthikumar Sankarorcid tiny and Anant Achary*orcid tiny

 

Department of Biotechnology, Centre for Research, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology,
S.P.G.C. Nagar, 625701 K. Vellakulam, Near Virudhunagar, Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, India


Article history:
Received: May 2, 2017
Accepted: August 1, 2017
cc


Key words:
Bacillus subtilis lipase, Celite® 545, immobilization, esterification, feruloyl ester


Summary:
The lipophilic antioxidants, glyceryl ferulate and feruloyl glyceryl linoleate, were synthesized using lipase from Bacillus subtilis AKL 13. The extracellular lipase was produced by cultivation of the strain in modified minimal medium and the enzyme was recovered by fractionation at 80 % ammonium salt saturation. The concentrated enzyme with the specific activity of (4647±66) U/mg was immobilized on Celite® 545 and crosslinked using glutaraldehyde. The prepared enzyme catalyst was used for esterification of ferulic and linoleic acids with glycerol separately in hexane butane solvent system at 50 °C and 3.144×g agitation. The maximum ester conversion of 94 % of feruloyl glyceryl linoleate was achieved at 48 h, whereas only 35 % of glyceryl ferulate was synthesized. The reaction products were characterized using RP-HPLC, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The kinetic parameters of esterification reaction were determined according to ping-pong bi-bi model. The Km and υmax were found to be 69.37 and 3.46 mmol, and 0.387 and 1.02 mmol/(min·g) for glyceryl ferulate and feruloyl glyceryl linoleate, respectively. The kinetic parameters were simulated in MATLAB and the experimental data were in good agreement. Furthermore, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of the blend of feruloyl ester and palm oil was higher than of the plain palm oil and was closer to α-tocopherol.



*Corresponding author: tel3 +91 9486 823 312
                                          fax2 +91 4549 278 172
                                          email3 achyanant@yahoo.com

getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.04.17.5157  

Antioxidant Potential and Modulatory Effects of Restructured Lipids from the Amazonian Palms on Liver Cells


Andrea de Oliveira Falcãoorcid tiny, Paula Speranza*orcid tiny, Tatiane Uetaorcid tiny, Isabela Mateus Martinsorcid tinyGabriela Alves Macedoorcid tiny and Juliana Alves Macedo*orcid tiny

 

Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato 80, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP, Brazil


Article history:
Received: January 12, 2017
Accepted: September 28, 2017
cc


Key words:
enzymatic interesterification, lipases, buriti oil, murumuru fat, HepG2 cells, antioxidant activity


Summary:
Enzymatic interesterification is used to manipulate oil and fat in order to obtain improved restructured lipids with desired technological properties. However, with raw materials containing significant amounts of bioactive compounds, the influence of this enzymatic process on the bioactivity of the final product is still not clear. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant potential and modulatory effects of two raw materials from the Amazonian area, buriti oil and murumuru fat, before and after lipase interesterification, on human hepatoma cells (HepG2). The results indicate that minor bioactive compounds naturally found in the raw materials and their antioxidant capacity are preserved after enzymatic interesterification, and that the restructured lipids modulate HepG2 endogenous antioxidant enzyme.



*Corresponding authors:  tel3  +55 19 3521 4059
                                             fax2  +55 19 3521 4060
                                              
email3  paulasperanza09@gmail.com, jmacedo@fea.unicamp.br

getpdf  NLM-PubMed-Logo  doi: 10.17113/ftb.55.04.17.4911 

Immobilization of Lipase Inhibitor on the Biopolymers from Agaricus bisporus Cell Walls


Natalya Chernoorcid tiny, Sophya Osolinaorcid tiny and Oleksandra Nikitina*orcid tiny

Research Laboratory, Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies, Kanatnya str 112,
UA-65039 Odessa, Ukraine


Article history:
Received: July 24, 2016
Accepted: November 2, 2017
cc


Key words:
lipase inhibitor, biopolymers, immobilization, mushroom, rapeseed


Summary:
One of the methods for curing obesity is the inclusion of some substances with the antilipase activity in the diet and thus reducing the uptake of fat components from food. The aim of this research is to provide a stabilized form of lipase inhibitor by immobilization of enzyme on the biopolymers from Agaricus bisporus cell walls. The phenolic compounds extracted from the rapeseed were considered as the lipase inhibitor. The activity of the inhibitor was considerably reduced in the gastric juice, as well as at temperatures above 37 °C and during its storage, which determined the suitability of the inhibitor for stabilization on the matrix. The effectiveness of the phenolic compound stabilization was investigated by means of immobilization onthe biopolymers from Agaricus bisporus cell wall matrix. The biopolymers used were β-glucan, chitin, melanin and proteins. A number of samples, which differed both in the content of the inhibitor (from 1 to 16 %) and in the ratio of biopolymers in the matrix composition, was obtained. The conditions of immobilization (temperature, duration of the process) were also varied. The expediency of obtaining the sample with the inhibitor content of 12 % and matrix containing 47.9 % of glucan, 18.8 % of chitin, 18.8 % of melanin and 11.1 % of proteins was shown. The best immobilization was carried out at 20–25 °C for 30 min. Thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy data confirmed that immobilization of the lipase inhibitor on the matrix was due to the hydrogen bonds. The immobilized inhibitor had higher pH stability and higher thermal stability than the original one. The remaining activity of the immobilized inhibitor was higher than the original one after incubation in the gastric acid and bile. The immobilized inhibitor was characterized by a low loss of activity after 12 months of storage.



*Corresponding author:  tel3  +380 95 192 4212
                                            email3  alex.nikitina@gmail.com

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