Biosynthesis of Citric Acid from Glycerol by Acetate Mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica in Fed-Batch Fermentation 

Anita Rywińska, Waldemar Rymowicz*, Barbara Żarowska and Maria Wojtatowicz

Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Norwida 25, PL-50-375 Wroclaw, Poland

Article history:

Received November 23, 2007
Accepted May 7, 2008

Key words:

citric acid, crude glycerol, erythritol, fed-batch process, Yarrowia lipolytica


Pure and crude glycerol from biodiesel production have been used as substrates for citric acid production by acetate-negative mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica in fed-batch fermentation. Both the final concentration and the yield of the product were the highest when Y. lipolytica Wratislavia AWG7 strain was used in the culture with pure or crude glycerol. With a medium containing 200 g/L of glycerol, production reached a maximum of citric acid of 139 g/L after 120 h. This high yield of the product (up to 0.69 g of citric acid per gram of glycerol consumed) was achieved with both pure and crude glycerol. Lower yield of citric acid in the culture with Y. lipolytica Wratislavia K1 strain (about 0.45 g/g) resulted from increased erythritol concentrations (up to 40 g/L), accumulated simultaneously with the citric acid. The concentration of isocitric acid, a by-product in this fermentation, was very low, in the range from 2.6 to 4.6 g/L.


*Corresponding author: 
                                               ++48 71 3205 117

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