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Partial Characterization of a Low-Molecular-Mass Fraction with Cryoprotectant Activity from Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) Mantle Muscle

Andrés Álvarez-Armenta1orcid tiny, Elizabeth Carvajal-Millán2orcid tiny, Ramón Pacheco-Aguilar1orcid tiny, Guillermina García-Sánchez1orcid tiny, Enrique Márquez-Ríos3orcid tiny, Susana María Scheuren-Acevedo1orcid tiny and Juan Carlos Ramírez-Suárezorcid tiny


Fishery Products Quality Laboratory, Food and Development Research Center, A.C. Carretera a La Victoria Km. 0.6, 83304 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
2Biopolymers Laboratory, Food and Development Research Center, A.C. Carretera a La Victoria Km. 0.6, 83304 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
3Department of Research and Postgraduate in Foods, University of Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales S/N, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

Article history:
Received: 14 May 2018
Accepted: 11 December 2018

Key words:
squid muscle, myofibrillar protein, monosaccharides, free amino acids, cryostability

Freezing conditions affect fish muscle protein functionality due to its denaturation/aggregation. However, jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle protein functionality remains stable even after freezing, probably due to the presence of low-molecular-mass compounds (LMMC) as cryoprotectants. Thus, water-soluble LMMC (<1 kDa) fraction obtained from jumbo squid muscle was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. From its spectra, total carbohydrates, free monosaccharides, free amino acids and ammonium chloride were determined. Cryoprotectant capacity and protein cryostability conferred by LMMC were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Fraction partial characterization showed that the main components are free amino acids (18.84 mg/g), carbohydrates (67.1 μg/mg) such as monosaccharides (51.1 μg/mg of glucose, fucose and arabinose in total) and ammonium chloride (220.4 μg/mg). Arginine, sarcosine and taurine were the main amino acids in the fraction. LMMC, at the mass fraction present in jumbo squid muscle, lowered the water freezing point to –1.2 °C, inhibiting recrystallization at 0.66 °C. Significant myofibrillar protein stabilization by LMMC was observed after a freeze-thaw cycle compared to control (muscle after extraction of LMMC), proving the effectiveness on jumbo squid protein muscle cryostability. Osmolytes in LMMC fraction inhibited protein denaturation/aggregation and ice recrystallization, maintaining the muscle structure stable under freezing conditions. LMMC conferred protein cryostability even at the very low mass fraction in the muscle.

*Corresponding author: tel3 +526622892400 ext: 654
                                          fax2 +526622800421

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Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Palm Oil Processing Residues and Their Application as Antioxidants

Erminda Tsouko1orcid tiny, Maria Alexandri1,2*orcid tiny, Keysson Vieira Fernandes3orcid tiny, Denise Maria Guimarães Freire3orcid tiny, Athanasios Mallouchos1*orcid tiny and Apostolis A. Koutinas1orcid tiny 

1Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
2Department of Bioengineering, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee, 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany
3Biochemistry Department, Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco A, Lab 549, RJ 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Article history:
Received: 27 March 2018
Accepted: 12 December 2018

Key words:
palm oil production side streams, phenolics, antioxidant activity, DPPH, induction time, sunflower oil

The side streams derived from the palm oil production process, namely palm kernel cake, palm pressed fibre, palm kernel shells and empty fruit bunches, were evaluated as sources of phenolic compounds. Among these streams, kernel cake had the highest total phenolic content (in mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g of dry sample) with a value of 5.19, whereas the empty fruit bunches had the lowest value (1.79). The extraction time and liquid-to-solid ratio were investigated to optimize the phenolic extraction. Kernel cake exhibited the highest total phenolic content (5.35 mg/g) with a liquid-to-solid ratio of 40:1 during 20 min of extraction. The main phenolic compounds of the extracts deriving from all byproduct streams were also identified and quantified with HPLC-DAD. Pyrogallol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid were the main compounds found in kernel cake extracts. Empty fruit bunch and pressed fibre extracts were also rich in 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, while pyrogallol was the predominant compound in kernel shell extracts. All extracts showed antioxidant activity as it was indicated from the results of DPPH analysis and subsequently tested in sunflower oil aiming to prolong its shelf life. The addition of 0.8 % kernel cake extract increased the induction time of sunflower oil more than 50 %. According to the results obtained in this study, kernel cake extracts could be considered as a value-added co-product with a potential application as antioxidants in the food industry.

*Corresponding authors: tel3 +493315699851
                                           tel3 +306944443876


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Novel Approach in the Construction of Bioethanol-Producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hybrids

Anamarija Štafa1orcid tiny, Bojan Žunar1orcid tiny, Andrea Pranklin1orcid tiny, Antonio Zandona1orcid tiny, Marina Svetec Miklenić1orcid tiny, Božidar Šantek2orcid tiny and Ivan Krešimir Svetec1*orcid tiny 


1University of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Department of Biochemical Engineering, Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics, Kršnjavoga 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2University of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Department of Biochemical Engineering, Laboratory for Biochemical Engineering, Industrial Microbiology and Malting and Brewing Technology, Kačićeva 28, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Article history:
Received: 25 January 2018
Accepted: 10 December 2018

Key words:
yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, intraspecies hybrids, lignocellulosic hydrolysates, growth and fermentation inhibitors, gene targeting

Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates requires a producer strain that tolerates both the presence of growth and fermentation inhibitors and high ethanol concentrations. Therefore, we constructed heterozygous intraspecies hybrid diploids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by crossing two natural S. cerevisiae isolates, YIIc17_E5 and UWOPS87-2421, a good ethanol producer found in wine and a strain from the flower of the cactus Opuntia megacantha resistant to inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, respectively. Hybrids grew faster than parental strains in the absence and in the presence of acetic and levulinic acids and 2-furaldehyde, inhibitors frequently found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, and the overexpression of YAP1 gene increased their survival. Furthermore, although originating from the same parental strains, hybrids displayed different fermentative potential in a CO2 production test, suggesting genetic variability that could be used for further selection of desirable traits. Therefore, our results suggest that the construction of intraspecies hybrids coupled with the use of genetic engineering techniques is a promising approach for improvement or development of new biotechnologically relevant strains of S. cerevisiae. Moreover, it was found that the success of gene targeting (gene targeting fidelity) in natural S. cerevisiae isolates (YIIc17_E5α and UWOPS87-2421α) was strikingly lower than in laboratory strains and the most frequent off-targeting event was targeted chromosome duplication.

*Corresponding author: tel3 +38514836013
                                          fax2 +38514836016

§The paper was presented at European Biotechnology Congress, 25-27 May 2017, Dubrovnik, Croatia


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An Integrated Characterization of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) Grown in the North Adriatic Region

Ana Miklavčič Višnjevec1orcid tinyAlenka Baruca Arbeiter1orcid tinyMatjaž Hladnik1orcid tiny, Ajda Ota2orcid tiny, Mihaela Skrt2orcid tiny, Bojan 
Butinar3orcid tiny, Marijan Nečemer4orcid tinyMarin Krapac5orcid tiny, Dean Ban5orcid tinyMilena Bučar-Miklavčič3orcid tinyNataša Poklar Ulrih2orcid tiny 
and Dunja Bandelj1
*orcid tiny

1Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Glagoljaška 8, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
2Department of Food Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, Jamnikarjeva ulica 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3Science and Research Centre Koper, Garibaldijeva 1, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
4Department of Environmental Sciences, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Ul. Karla Huguesa 8, 52440 Poreč, Croatia

Article history:
Received: 24 June 2018
Accepted: 17 December 2018

Key words:
Ziziphus jujuba Mill., phenolic compounds, antioxidative properties, nutritional properties, antimicrobial activity, genetic diversity


Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) has favourable horticultural properties including adaptation to arid conditions, abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as positive impact on human health. The present study describes the characterization of genetic diversity of the germplasm of jujube from the Istrian peninsula, the determination of important chemical compounds, antioxidative properties in relation to antibacterial and antifungal activities of jujube fruit extracts, and the determination of nutritional properties of jujube fruit. The results of the genetic analysis showed that most of the samples from the Istrian peninsula belong to two recently introduced varieties, 'Li' and 'Lang', and the most widespread local variety 'Navadna žižola'. The local variety has smaller fruit than the ‘Li’ and ‘Lang’ varieties, with thick and fleshy mesocarp. Chemical analysis indicated that fruits of the local variety contained a valuable source of dietary fibre ((9.7±0.6) g/100 g) and were rich in minerals such as (in g/100 g dry mass): potassium (829±51), calcium (177±11) and phosphorus (129±19). Aqueous extracts showed slight antibacterial activity, while ethanol extracts had higher mass fractions of phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), 5.8-8.7 mg/g) than the aqueous extracts, but did not show antimicrobial activity. Compounds other than phenolic compounds in jujube fruit may be more biologically active. Based on the results of these analyses, the local Istrian jujube variety is a promising candidate for cultivation potential.

*Corresponding author:  tel3 +38656117570
                                           fax2 +38656117571

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