getpdf NLM PubMed Logo https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.58.01.20.6544

Evaluation of Process Conditions for Ultrasonic Spray Freeze Drying of Transglutaminase

Hilal Islerogluorcid tiny* and Izzet Turkerorcid tiny

Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Food Engineering Department, Tasliciftlik Campus, 60150 Tokat, Turkey

Article history:

Received: 16 October 2019

Accepted: 11 March 2020
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Key words:

spray freeze drying, ultrasonication, transglutaminase, enzyme activity, flow behaviour, particle morphology

Summary:

In this study, a commercial transglutaminase enzyme was dried using an ultrasonicspray freeze drying method and the effects of the process conditions were optimized tomaximize the final transglutaminase activity. Accordingly, process parameters affectingenzyme activity were selected, such as nozzle frequency (48 and 120 kHz), flow rate (2, 5and 8 mL/min) and plate temperature for secondary drying (25, 35 and 45 °C). Moreover,the effects of different pH values (pH=2.0 and 9.0) and high temperature (80 °C) on enzymeactivity, physical properties and particle morphology of transglutaminase were discussed.According to the results, transglutaminase preserved its activity despite ultrasonic sprayfreeze drying. Sonication enhanced the enzyme activity. Using the desirability functionmethod, the optimum process conditions were determined to be flow rate 3.10 mL/min,plate temperature 45 °C and nozzle frequency 120 kHz. The predicted activity ratio was1.17, and experimentally obtained ratio was 1.14±0.02. Furthermore, enzyme produced byultrasonic spray freeze drying had low moisture values (2.92-4.36 %) at 8 h of drying. Whenthe morphological structure of the transglutaminase particles produced by ultrasonicspray freeze drying under the optimum conditions was examined, spherical particles withpores on their surfaces were observed. In addition, flow properties of the transglutaminasepowders were considered as fair under most conditions according to the Carr index.

*Corresponding author: +903562521616 (2888)
  hilal.isleroglu@gop.edu.tr

getpdf NLM PubMed Logo https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.58.01.20.6531 Supplement

Identification of Durum Wheat Cultivars and Their Tetraploid Relatives with Low Cadmium Content

Mehmet Tekin1orcid tiny, Ahmet Cat2orcid tiny, Sahriye Sönmez3orcid tinyand Taner Akar1*orcid tiny

1Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, 07059 Antalya, Turkey

2Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 07059 Antalya, Turkey

3Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 07059 Antalya, Turkey

Article history:

Received: 8 October 2019

Accepted: 29 March 2020

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Key words:

durum wheat characterization, low Cd content, tetraploid wheat, marker-assisted breeding

Summary:

In this study, 71 durum wheat cultivars (Triticum durum Desf.), 22 emmer wheat (Triticumdicoccum L.) and 11 wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides L.) genotypes were genetically characterizedto determine the alleles associated with high cadmium (Cd) content. After genotypiccharacterization, 14 cultivars selected among all genotypes with low and high Cd contentwere phenotyped by a pot experiment to verify the genotypic data. Identification of 32 durumwheat, one emmer wheat and four wild emmer genotypes showed that they have allelesassociated with high Cd content, while 68 genotypes of which 39 durum wheat, 21 emmerwheat and 7 wild emmer cultivars had alleles associated with low Cd content. Moreover, phenotypicdata obtained from pot experiment were similar to the molecular data. To sum up, themarker successfully classified durum wheat cultivars into either high or low accumulators andthese results can be safely used in breeding programs to improve new durum wheat cultivarswith alleles associated with low Cd content. Due to routine use of phosphorus fertilizers inagricultural areas and other anthropogenic factors related to Cd toxicity, new durum wheatcultivars with low Cd content should be urgently developed for safe production of macaronior other types of wheat products for human and animal consumption.

*Corresponding author: +905383158744
  tanerakar@akdeniz.edu.tr

getpdf NLM PubMed Logo https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.58.01.20.6429

Microencapsulation of Red Grape Juice by Freeze Drying and Application in Jelly Formulation

Liliana Mihalcea, Vasilica Barbu, Elena Enachi, Doina Georgeta Andronoiuorcid tiny, Gabriela Râpeanuorcid tiny, Maricica Stoicaorcid tiny, Loredana Dumitrașcuorcid tinyand Nicoleta Stănciuc*orcid tiny

Integrated Center for Research, Expertise and Technological Transfer in Food Industry, Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, 111 Domnească Street, 800201 Galați, Romania

Article history:

Received: 26 June 2019

Accepted: 25 February 2020

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Key words:

anthocyanin microencapsulation, freeze drying, whey protein isolate-chitosan matrix, grape juice, jelly, in vitro digestibility

Summary:

The aim of this work is to obtain new food products enriched with bioactive compoundsfrom concentrated grape juice microencapsulated by freeze drying using a wheyprotein isolate- chitosan system. The obtained powder showed an encapsulation efficiencyof (86.1±4.0) %, with an anthocyanin mass fraction (expressed as cyanidin-3-O-glucosideequivalent) of (1.4±0.2) mg/g, while the total polyphenolic (expressed as gallic acid equivalents)and flavonoid (expressed as catechin equivalents) mass fractions were (3.3±0.6) and(1.6±0.5) mg/g, respectively. The confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of theflavonoid pigments wrapped inside the matrix, whereas the anthocyanins were groupedinto large and compact clusters. The microencapsulated powder was used for jelly formulation.The new food formulations have a satisfactory anthocyanin mass fraction rangingfrom (0.03±0.01) to (0.12±0.02) mg/g, while no significant differences were observed inflavonoid content. All the value-added jelly showed appreciable antioxidant activity. Thein vitro digestibility results confirm a slow release of anthocyanins from the food matricesduring simulated gastric digestion and a significant release of the bioactive compoundsinto the gut. The addition of microencapsulated powder caused a significant decrease infirmness, cohesiveness and springiness, leading to the destabilization of the gel structure,while reducing the attraction forces between the matrix components. The sensorial analysisindicated that the panellists preferred the sample with grape juice the most.

*Corresponding author: +40336130183
  +40236460165
  Nicoleta.Stanciuc@ugal.ro

getpdf NLM PubMed Logo https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.58.01.20.6461 Supplement

Effects of High Sugar Content on Fermentation Dynamics and Some Metabolites of Wine-Related Yeast Species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. uvarum and Starmerella bacillaris

Borbála Oláhné Horváth*orcid tiny, Diána Nyitrainé Sárdyorcid tiny, Nikolett Kellnerorcid tinyand Ildikó Magyarorcid tiny

Szent István University Faculty of Horticultural Science Department of Oenology, Ménesi út 45, 1118 Budapest, Hungary

Article history:

Received: 25 July 2019

Accepted: 18 February 2020

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Key words:

Starmerella bacillaris, Candida zemplinina, non-Saccharomyces yeast, high sugar concentration, metabolic footprint

Summary:

Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) is an important non-Saccharomycesyeast in winemaking with valuable oenological properties, accompanying Saccharomycesspecies in sweet wine fermentation, and has also been suggested for application ascombined starter culture in dry or sweet wines. In this study, the major metabolites andnitrogen utilization of these yeasts are evaluated in the musts with high or extremely highsugar concentration. The change in the metabolic footprint of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,Saccharomyces uvarum and Starmerella bacillaris strains was compared when they werepresent as pure cultures in chemically defined grape juice medium with 220 and 320 g/L ofsugar, to represent a fully matured and an overripe grape. Surprisingly, the extreme sugarconcentration did not result in a considerable change in the rate of sugar consumption;only a shift of the sugar consumption curves could be noticed for all species, especiallyfor Starmerella bacillaris. At the extreme sugar concentration, Starmerella bacillaris showedexcellent glycerol production, moderate nitrogen demand together with a noticeableproline utilisation. The change in the overall metabolite pattern of Starmerella bacillarisallowed clear discrimination from the change of the Saccharomyces species. In this experiment,the adequacy of this non-Saccharomyces yeast for co-fermentation in juices withhigh sugar concentration is highlighted. Moreover, the results suggest that Starmerellabacillaris has a more active adaptation mechanism to extremely high sugar concentration.

*Corresponding author: +3613057347
  +361305700
  olahne.horvath.borbala@kertk.szie.hu

getpdf NLM PubMed Logo https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.58.01.20.6395

HPLC Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Flavonoids with Overlapping Peaks

Luke Mizzi1*orcid tiny, Christina Chatzitzika1orcid tiny, Ruben Gatt2orcid tinyand Vasilis Valdramidis1orcid tiny

1Department of Food Studies and Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta, Triq il-Qroqq, Msida MSD 2080, Malta

2Metamaterials Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Malta, Triq il-Qroqq, Msida MSD 2080, Malta

Article history:

Received: 2 June 2019

Accepted: 17 February 2020

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Key words:

HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorbance, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, overlapping peaks

Summary:

The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in variousnatural food products is typically conducted using HPLC analysis. Their analysis is particularlycomplex since most natural food products contain a large number of different phenoliccompounds, many of which have similar chemical characteristics such as polarity,which makes complete separation of all eluents extremely difficult. In this work we presentand validate a method for the quantitative determination of the concentration of twocompounds with similar retention times, i.e. they show overlapping peaks in a mixed solution.Two pairs of phenolic compounds were investigated: caffeic and vanillic acids and ferulicand p-coumaric acids. This technique takes advantage of the different absorbancesof the two phenolic compounds in the eluent at various wavelengths and can be used forthe quantitative determination of the concentration of these compounds even if they arenot separated in the HPLC column. The presented method could be used to interpret theresults of HPLC analysis of food products which possess a vast spectrum of phenolic compoundsand flavonoids.

*Corresponding author: luke.mizzi@um.edu.mt
  luke.mizzi@unimore.it

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