Evaluation of Process Conditions for Ultrasonic Spray Freeze Drying of Transglutaminase
Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Food Engineering Department, Tasliciftlik Campus, 60150 Tokat, Turkey
Received: 16 October 2019
Accepted: 11 March 2020
spray freeze drying, ultrasonication, transglutaminase, enzyme activity, flow behaviour, particle morphology
In this study, a commercial transglutaminase enzyme was dried using an ultrasonic spray freeze drying method and the effects of the process conditions were optimized to maximize the final transglutaminase activity. Accordingly, process parameters affecting enzyme activity were selected, such as nozzle frequency (48 and 120 kHz), flow rate (2, 5 and 8 mL/min) and plate temperature for secondary drying (25, 35 and 45 °C). Moreover, the effects of different pH values (pH=2.0 and 9.0) and high temperature (80 °C) on enzyme activity, physical properties and particle morphology of transglutaminase were discussed. According to the results, transglutaminase preserved its activity despite ultrasonic spray freeze drying. Sonication enhanced the enzyme activity. Using the desirability function method, the optimum process conditions were determined to be flow rate 3.10 mL/min, plate temperature 45 °C and nozzle frequency 120 kHz. The predicted activity ratio was 1.17, and experimentally obtained ratio was 1.14±0.02. Furthermore, enzyme produced by ultrasonic spray freeze drying had low moisture values (2.92-4.36 %) at 8 h of drying. When the morphological structure of the transglutaminase particles produced by ultrasonic spray freeze drying under the optimum conditions was examined, spherical particles with pores on their surfaces were observed. In addition, flow properties of the transglutaminase powders were considered as fair under most conditions according to the Carr index.
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