Physicochemical and Active Properties of Gelatine-Based Composite Gels Loaded with Lysozyme and Green Tea Polyphenols
1Department of Food Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Gulbahce Koyu, Urla, Izmir, Turkey
2School of Engineering, University of Lincoln, LN6 7TS Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom
3Molecular Nutrition and Human Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Gulbahce Koyu, Urla, Izmir, Turkey
Received: 29 October 2020
Accepted: 14 July 2021
gelatine gel, candelilla wax, rice starch, lysozyme, composite gel, green tea extract
Research background. The use of gel-based systems as a novel method for the delivery of natural antimicrobial, antioxidant and bioactive compounds is a developing innovative solution for the food industry. This research aims to develop multifunctional active edible gels based on gelatine and its composites with improved mechanical properties.
Experimental approach. Antilisterial and bioactive composite gels showing different physical and active properties from classical gelatine gel were developed by loading lysozyme and green tea extract into gelatine/starch and gelatine/wax composite gels. Mechanical properties, swelling profiles, colour, release profiles, and antimicrobial and bioactive properties of the gels were characterised.
Results and conclusions. Gelatine/wax gels showed 1.3- to 2.1-fold higher firmness and cutting strength than gelatine and gelatine/starch composite gels that had similar firmness and cutting strengths. Work to shear of both composite gels was 1.4- to 1.9-fold higher than that of gelatine gel. The gelatine/starch gel showed the highest water absorption capacity. Green tea extract reduced soluble lysozyme in all gels, but composite gels contained higher amount of soluble lysozyme than gelatine gel. All the gels with lysozyme inhibited Listeria innocua growth in the broth media, while green tea extract showed antilisterial activity only in gelatine/wax gels. Gels with green tea extract showed antioxidant, antidiabetic (α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition), antihypertensive (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition) and antiproliferative activities (on Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells). However, gelatine and gelatine/wax gels showed the highest antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. The gelatine/wax gels prevented phenolic browning, while green tea extract in other gels showed moderate or extensive browning.
Novelty and scientific contribution. This work clearly showed the possibility of improving mechanical properties and modifying water absorption and controlled release profiles of gelatine gels using gelatine/starch and gelatine/wax composites. The novel composite gels reduced browning of incorporated polyphenols and showed antilisterial and bioactive properties.