Detection of Microorganisms Using Graphene-Based Nanobiosensors
1School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Science and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Food Technology Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, P. O. Box 19395-4741, Tehran, Iran
Received: 8 March 2021
Accepted: 19 October 2021
graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, graphene quantum dots, microorganism detection, nanobiosensors
Having an insight into graphene and graphene derivatives such as graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide and graphene quantum dots is necessary since it can help scientists to detect possible properties and features that could be useful when using these carbon materials in preparation of a nanocomposites. In recent years, graphene and its derivatives have attracted a lot of attention and been extensively applied in biosensors due to fascinating properties, such as large surface area, optical and magnetic properties, and high elasticity for the detection of microorganisms as they can be modified with some other materials such as macromolecules, oxide metals and metals to improve the electrochemical behaviour of the biosensor. In this review paper, biosensor design strategies based on graphene and its derivatives (graphene-based nanocomposites in biosensors) are described. Then their application for the detection of microorganisms including prions, viroids, viral and bacterial cells as well as fungi, protozoa, microbial toxins and even microbial sources of antibiotics is reviewed.