Yeast Multi-Enzymatic Systems for Improving Colour Extraction, Technological Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Wine
Sara Jaquelina Longhi1,2*, María Carolina Martín1,2, María Gabriela Merín1,2* and Vilma Inés Morata de Ambrosini1,2
1National University of Cuyo/Faculty of Applied Sciences to Industry, Bernardo de Irigoyen 375, 5600 San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina
2National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Received: 29 April 2022
Accepted: 14 July 2022
antioxidant activity; colour extraction; technological parameters; plant cell wall-depolymerizing enzymes; winemaking; yeast
Research background. Wine yeasts are a heterogeneous microbial group with high enzymatic potential that makes them a useful tool in winemaking. With a better understanding of their oenological properties, selection procedures can be optimised to obtain more efficient strains. The present study aims to isolate and select yeasts from wine grape surface by studying their production of enzymes that hydrolyse plant cell wall polymers and by linking them to different technological parameters and antioxidant activity of wines.
Experimental approach. Yeasts that are able to produce carbohydrolases and related enzymes of oenological importance were firstly selected on plates and subsequently identified. Then, a secondary selection of yeasts was carried out according to technological effects of their extracellular enzyme extracts on short macerations. In this way, the colour extraction, total polyphenol content, clarification, filterability and antioxidant activity were studied. This approach makes it possible to correlate the microorganism capacity to produce cell wall-depolymerizing enzymes with their technological effects.
Results and conclusions. From 366 isolates, 96 strains (26.2 %) showed at least one of the polysaccharidase activities and 55 strains (57.3 %) of them exhibited activities of multiple enzymes that degrade plant cell wall polymers. Sixteen strains were selected and identified as Aureobasidium, Candida, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Torulaspora. Pectinolytic enzymes had the highest hydrolytic activity. Aureobasidium pullulans had a broader enzyme blend and higher activity, dominated by pectinases and followed by xylanases and cellulases. Moreover, the Torulaspora delbrueckii m7-2 strain produced high amounts of polysaccharidase and this was strain-dependent. Strains that produced enzyme extracts with a wide range of activities that were also the highest, also had the best chromatic and technological properties. Cluster analysis confirmed that A. pullulans R-22, m11-2, m86-1 and m86-2 and T. delbrueckii m7-2 could be correlated with a better effect on filterability, clarification and extraction of bioactive compounds, encouraging future studies regarding their application in winemaking.
Novelty and scientific contribution. The study of yeast multi-enzymatic systems impacting the grape maceration process enables a proper selection criterion for wine yeasts to improve colour extraction, technological parameters and antioxidant activity of Malbec wine. This work shows that A. pullulans and T. delbruekii have a high enzymatic potential for oenological purposes.