Manuscript Organization

All papers must be written in English (preferably UK for non-native speakers). If English is not the authors’ first language, the manuscript should be given to a native speaker for editing and proofreading. The submission may be rejected if written in poor English, or not written according to the instructions to authors.

All headings (Summary, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discusion, Conclusions, References) must be written in bold and placed above the text (paragraph). Subheadings (second order headings) may be used in Materials and Methods and Results and Discussion sections to simplify the presentation. Subheadings in Results and Discussion section should differ from the ones used in Materials and Methods section. They should be placed above the text and written in italic, with only first word beginning with capital letter. Third order headings should be written in a normal font and placed above the text. Fourth order headings can be used only if necessary and should be written in normal font in line with the text, separated with a full stop from the reamining text.

Latin words, phrases and abbreviations, including generic and specific names, should be written in italic throughout the text.

The cited references must be numbered consecutively throughout the text with ordinal numbers of the references in round brackets, and only the number written in italic. Further instructions how to write references are given here.

Equations should be written in a separate line and numbered consecutively with a number between slashes (/1/, /2/ etc.). When cited in text, abbreviation Eq. or Eqs. should be used (Eq. 1, Eqs. 2 and 3 etc.).

The position of figures and tables should be marked in the text.

For clearness the research paper should be divided into the following sections:

  • Title page
  • Summary
  • Key words
  • Nomenclature (optional)
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results and Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Authors are advised to consult the template for further details how to form their manuscript.

Review and minireview papers should be written by well-recognized experts in the field rather than someone less experienced. Manuscripts written in form of (mini)review papers must also contain Summary, Introduction, and Conclusion chapters, while the body should contain subheadings that reflect the content of the manuscript, with the rules for grading the subheadings being the same. If figures and tables are used, their position must be indicated in the text, and attention must be paid to the order of references, as figures and tables must also follow the consecutive order of references in the text. Authors must be careful not to use double references.

Title page

Title page should contain the following information: Title, Running title, Authors names, Affiliations, Summary and Key words

Title of the manuscript should be informative but concise and explain the nature of the work. It must be understandable for readers outside the field, but should contain sufficient details for indexing purposes. It should not exceed 120 characters (with spaces), and all nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs in the title must be written with first capital letter.

Running title should be concise and contain no more than 6-7 words. It should clearly present the topic of the paper.

The manuscript must contain full names (first names, then surnames should be written; surnames must be underlined) of all authors with asterisk (*) next to the name of the corresponding author.

Affiliations (institutional addresses) should be written in English and marked with numbers in superscript next to the author's surname (the affiliation of first author should be marked with 1, second with 2 etc.). If all authors are from the same institution, numbers are not needed.

Contact details of corresponding author should be given in the footnote at the bottom of the title page (*Corresponding author: Phone:…; Fax:...; E-mail:…).


The summary (abstract of the paper) should not be longer than 250 words in a single paragraph. It should explain the aim of the paper and include the most relevant results and conclusions. No abbreviations, equations, illustrations, figures, tables or references should appear in the summary. The information in the summary should agree with the rest of the text and all information in it should appear in the body of the paper. Directly below the summary the key words should be presented. The Summary paragraph should contain all key words. 

Key words

Key words should list the main topic of the paper for indexing purposes, so they should not be too general. There should be no more than 10 words or phrases, which should be separated by commas. Use of abbreviations as key words should be avoided, except for well-known and standard abbreviations (such as HPLC, PCR etc.). Key words that do not appear anywhere in the text should not be used.

Nomenclature (optional)

When many abbreviations and symbols are used in the text, a separate section can be included with the list of abbreviations and symbols used in the text and their short description. For physical quantities, besides symbol definition units should be written.


The introductory part should clearly describe the aim of the research. Sufficient references to relevant previous publications along with a brief discussion and conclusions of past research should be given. A short section explaining the relevance of the presented research in that context should be included. It should be pointed out why the methodology used in the present study was chosen and why it will provide new insights.

Materials and Methods

Experimental part should be written clearly and in sufficient detail about the used protocol to allow the work to be repeated. Detailed description is required only for new techniques and procedures, while the known methods must be cited in the references. For chemicals and apparatus used, full data should be given including the name of the product, company/manufacturer (do not cite a supplier, only manufacturers), city and country (state and country) of origin, while computer software, search tools and databases should be cited in the reference list. Details on organism(s) studied and, when relevant, their pre-experiment handling and care should be given. For a field study, a description of the study site, including the significant physical and biological features, and the precise location should be included. Origin of the products purchased from local producers or markets must also be specified. The sampling design should be described (controls, number of samples, treatments, measured variables, replication, final form of data etc.). Statistical procedures and software used to analyze the results, including the probability level at which the significance was determined, should be described. If citing more than one method of the same standards organization, each method must be cited separately (see examples).

Do not mention tables and figures that present the results in this section. 

Results and Discussion

Results and Discussion should be written as one combined section in order to simplify the presentation. The body of the Results and Discussion section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the tables and figures.

Tables and/or figures should be sequenced to present the key findings in a logical order and assigned numbers in order in which they are referred to in the text, i.e. the first table should be cited as Table 1, the next Table 2 and so on. The first figure should be cited as Fig. 1, the next Fig. 2, etc. Their position should be indicated in the text. For further instruction click here.

Discussion should not be merely the repetition of the obtained results and should address each of the experiments or studies for which the results are presented. It should provide authors' interpretation of the significance of the obtained results. The findings should be related to the previous studies the authors and other investigators have done. Crucial information in the research should be emphasized and interpreted in the context of previously published work.


This section must not be merely the repetition of the content of the preceding sections. It cannot be omitted or merged with the previous section. Conclusion should concisely and clearly explain the significance of the results obtained in the presented work.

Acknowledgements to colleagues, institutions or companies for financial support, donations or any other assistance are recommended to be put at the end of the manuscript, before references, rather than in the text.


Authors bear the responsibility for the accuracy of the references; therefore, each reference should be thoroughly checked. References should be selective rather than extensive (with the exception of review articles). Preferably references should include recent international publications, unless giving a review of the field, must reflect the topic of the manuscript and show the relevance to the journal. They must all be written in English; references originally written in other languages must be translated into English and the language of origin must be written in brackets at the end of the reference. If the original literature cited has not been available, the authors should quote the source used. Unpublished data should be mentioned only in the text, and not appear in the reference list.

The references should be numerated in the order they are cited in the text, the ordinal number should be in italic, the same as in the text. After reference number, the surname should be written, followed by first name initial(s). Authors' names should be separated by commas. Full titles of articles should be written. Abbreviations for periodicals should be used (for help see Web of Science Journal Title Abbreviations). Doi numbers must be provided for all references that contain it. Authors must be careful not to repeat the same reference.

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