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Review of Thawing Time Prediction Models Depending on Process Conditions and Product Characteristics

Dariusz Góral1*, Franciszek Kluza1, Walter E. L. Spiess2 and Katarzyna Kozłowicz1

1University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Refrigeration and Food Industry Energetics,
Doświadczalna 44, PL-20–280 Lublin, Poland
2Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstraβe 12, DE-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

Article history:
Received February 2, 2015
Accepted July 30, 2015

Key words:
food, thawing time, prediction models

Determining thawing times of frozen foods is a challenging problem as the thermophysical properties of the product change during thawing. A number of calculation models and solutions have been developed. The proposed solutions range from relatively simple analytical equations based on a number of assumptions to a group of empirical approaches that sometimes require complex calculations. In this paper analytical, empirical and graphical models are presented and critically reviewed. The conditions of solution, limitations and possible applications of the models are discussed. The graphical and semi- -graphical models are derived from numerical methods. Using the numerical methods is not always possible as running calculations takes time, whereas the specialized soft ware and equipment are not always cheap. For these reasons, the application of analytical-empirical models is more useful for engineering. It is demonstrated that there is no simple, accurate and feasible analytical method for thawing time prediction. Consequently, simplified methods are needed for thawing time estimation of agricultural and food products. The review reveals the need for further improvement of the existing solutions or development of new ones that will enable accurate determination of thawing time within a wide range of practical conditions of heat transfer during processing.

*Corresponding author:  email3
                                      tel3  +48 (0)81 461 0061


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