getpdf NLM PubMed Logo  Supplement 

The Occurrence of Folate Biosynthesis Genes in Lactic Acid Bacteria from Different Sources

Fenny Amilia Mahara1orcid tiny, Lilis Nuraida1,2*orcid tiny, Hanifah Nuryani Lioe1orcid tiny and Siti Nurjanah1,2orcid tiny

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, and Technology, IPB University (Bogor Agricultural University), Bogor 16680, Indonesia

2Southeast Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, IPB University (Bogor Agricultural University), Bogor 16680, Indonesia

Article history:

Received: 19 September 2022

Accepted: 20 March 2023

cc by


extracellular folate producer; folate biosynthetic genes; lactic acid bacteria

E WEB Goal 03The content of this publication has not been approved by the United Nations and does not reflect the views of the United Nations or its officials or Member States.


Research background. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce folate. However, this ability is highly strain-dependent. Folate synthesis in specific LAB strains is affected by the availability of folate, which can be consumed by other LAB under certain conditions. Moreover, differences in folate synthesis capabilities are related to the presence of folate biosynthesis-related genes and regulation of this pathway.

Experimental approach. As basic information to better understand the regulation of folate biosynthesis among different LAB species and strains, folate biosynthetic genes were screened and identified in folate-producing and non-folate-producing LAB isolated from various local food sources in Indonesia. The extracellular folate productivity amounts of the isolates were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD).

Results and conclusionsEleven of the thirteen tested LAB isolates had all of the eight genes involved in folate biosynthesis (folE, folQ, folB, folK, folP, folC1, folA and folC2). Furthermore, these isolates produced extracellular folate ranging from 10.37 to 31.10 μg/mL. In contrast, two non-folate-producing isolates lacked several folate biosynthetic genes, such as folQ, folP and folA, which is possibly the reason for their inability to synthesize folate de novo. Phylogenetic tree construction revealed that the folate biosynthetic genes (excluding folK and folP) from six distinct species of folate-producing LAB isolates were monophyletic with homologous genes from other LAB species in the database.

Novelty and scientific contribution. In this study, the distribution of folate biosynthetic genes in various LAB species was determined. The findings from this research support the use of folate biosynthesis marker genes in the genotypic screening for folate-producing LAB.

*Corresponding author: / +622518626725
  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.