Evaluation of Biogenic Amines in Organic and Non-Organic Wines by HPLC OPA Derivatization

Hatice Kalkan Yıldırım1*, Ali Üren1 and Ufuk Yücel2

1Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, TR-35100 Bornova İzmir, Turkey
2Department of Food Technology, Vocational Technical School of Ege, Ege University, TR-35100 Bornova İzmir, Turkey

Article history:

Received January 18, 2006
Accepted June 29, 2006

Key words:

organic wine, biogenic amines, HPLC, grape varieties, OPA derivatization


Organic and non-organic wines, selected on the basis of consumers’ preference towards healthy products, were produced from the grapes of Vitis vinifera varieties Semillon, Colombard, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carignan and possible effects of different wine making techniques were considered. Concentrations of histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, ethylamine, methylamine, tryptamine, agmatine and β-phenylethylamine were quantified by HPLC fluorescence detection of ο-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) derivatives. The order of analyzed parameters in all wines from the highest to the lowest quantities was determined as follows: putrescine > histamine > ethylamine > methylamine > agmatine > tyramine > cadaverine > tryptamine. One of the analyzed compounds (β-phenylethylamine) was not detected. The highest average values for organic and non-organic wines were found as follows (in mg/L): putrescine 5.55, ethylamine 0.825 and histamine 0.628 in organic wines, and putrescine 3.68, histamine 1.14 and agmatine 0.662 in non-organic wines. Considering the wine type (organic/non-organic), an important difference was determined for putrescine. Putrescine content in organic wines was significantly greater than in non-organic ones (p=0.008). Evaluating colour of wines (white/red), a statistically significant difference was obtained for methylamine (p=0.028). Taking into account only grape varieties, statistically significant differences were found for histamine, methylamine, tyramine and cadaverine (p<0.05). The results of principal component analysis demonstrated close relations between the following biogenic amines and wines: agmatine and non-organic Colombard; tryptamine or cadaverine and both organic and non-organic Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

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